[ Orals & Spotlights: COVID/Health/Bio Applications ]

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic has led many countries to impose unprecedented lockdown measures in order to slow down the outbreak. Questions on whether governments have acted promptly enough, and whether lockdown measures can be lifted soon have since been central in public discourse. Data-driven models that predict COVID-19 fatalities under different lockdown policy scenarios are essential for addressing these questions, and for informing governments on future policy directions. To this end, this paper develops a Bayesian model for predicting the effects of COVID-19 containment policies in a global context — we treat each country as a distinct data point, and exploit variations of policies across countries to learn country-specific policy effects. Our model utilizes a two-layer Gaussian process (GP) prior — the lower layer uses a compartmental SEIR (Susceptible, Exposed, Infected, Recovered) model as a prior mean function with “country-and-policy-specific” parameters that capture fatality curves under different “counterfactual” policies within each country, whereas the upper layer is shared across all countries, and learns lower-layer SEIR parameters as a function of country features and policy indicators. Our model combines the solid mechanistic foundations of SEIR models (Bayesian priors) with the flexible data-driven modeling and gradient-based optimization routines of …

[ Orals & Spotlights: Language/Audio Applications ]

We demonstrate that scaling up language models greatly improves task-agnostic, few-shot performance, sometimes even becoming competitive with prior state-of-the-art fine-tuning approaches. Specifically, we train GPT-3, an autoregressive language model with 175 billion parameters, 10x more than any previous non-sparse language model, and test its performance in the few-shot setting. For all tasks, GPT-3 is applied without any gradient updates or fine-tuning, with tasks and few-shot demonstrations specified purely via text interaction with the model. GPT-3 achieves strong performance on many NLP datasets, including translation, question-answering, and cloze tasks. We also identify some datasets where GPT-3's few-shot learning still struggles, as well as some datasets where GPT-3 faces methodological issues related to training on large web corpora.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Reinforcement Learning ]

Deep reinforcement learning (DRL) algorithms and evolution strategies (ES) have been applied to various tasks, showing excellent performances. These have the opposite properties, with DRL having good sample efficiency and poor stability, while ES being vice versa. Recently, there have been attempts to combine these algorithms, but these methods fully rely on synchronous update scheme, making it not ideal to maximize the benefits of the parallelism in ES. To solve this challenge, asynchronous update scheme was introduced, which is capable of good time-efficiency and diverse policy exploration. In this paper, we introduce an Asynchronous Evolution Strategy-Reinforcement Learning (AES-RL) that maximizes the parallel efficiency of ES and integrates it with policy gradient methods. Specifically, we propose 1) a novel framework to merge ES and DRL asynchronously and 2) various asynchronous update methods that can take all advantages of asynchronism, ES, and DRL, which are exploration and time efficiency, stability, and sample efficiency, respectively. The proposed framework and update methods are evaluated in continuous control benchmark work, showing superior performance as well as time efficiency compared to the previous methods.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Representation/Relational ]

Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have proved exceptional at learning representations for visual object categorization. However, CNNs do not explicitly encode objects, parts, and their physical properties, which has limited CNNs' success on tasks that require structured understanding of visual scenes. To overcome these limitations, we introduce the idea of ``Physical Scene Graphs'' (PSGs), which represent scenes as hierarchical graphs, with nodes in the hierarchy corresponding intuitively to object parts at different scales, and edges to physical connections between parts. Bound to each node is a vector of latent attributes that intuitively represent object properties such as surface shape and texture. We also describe PSGNet, a network architecture that learns to extract PSGs by reconstructing scenes through a PSG-structured bottleneck. PSGNet augments standard CNNs by including: recurrent feedback connections to combine low and high-level image information; graph pooling and vectorization operations that convert spatially-uniform feature maps into object-centric graph structures; and perceptual grouping principles to encourage the identification of meaningful scene elements. We show that PSGNet outperforms alternative self-supervised scene representation algorithms at scene segmentation tasks, especially on complex real-world images, and generalizes well to unseen object types and scene arrangements. PSGNet is also able learn from physical motion, enhancing scene …

[ Orals & Spotlights: COVID/Health/Bio Applications ]

Telehealth and remote health monitoring have become increasingly important during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and it is widely expected that this will have a lasting impact on healthcare practices. These tools can help reduce the risk of exposing patients and medical staff to infection, make healthcare services more accessible, and allow providers to see more patients. However, objective measurement of vital signs is challenging without direct contact with a patient. We present a video-based and on-device optical cardiopulmonary vital sign measurement approach. It leverages a novel multi-task temporal shift convolutional attention network (MTTS-CAN) and enables real-time cardiovascular and respiratory measurements on mobile platforms. We evaluate our system on an Advanced RISC Machine (ARM) CPU and achieve state-of-the-art accuracy while running at over 150 frames per second which enables real-time applications. Systematic experimentation on large benchmark datasets reveals that our approach leads to substantial (20%-50%) reductions in error and generalizes well across datasets.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Reinforcement Learning ]

We present a new approach for efficient exploration which leverages a low-dimensional encoding of the environment learned with a combination of model-based and model-free objectives. Our approach uses intrinsic rewards that are based on the distance of nearest neighbors in the low dimensional representational space to gauge novelty. We then leverage these intrinsic rewards for sample-efficient exploration with planning routines in representational space for hard exploration tasks with sparse rewards. One key element of our approach is the use of information theoretic principles to shape our representations in a way so that our novelty reward goes beyond pixel similarity. We test our approach on a number of maze tasks, as well as a control problem and show that our exploration approach is more sample-efficient compared to strong baselines.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Language/Audio Applications ]

Recently, text-to-speech (TTS) models such as FastSpeech and ParaNet have been proposed to generate mel-spectrograms from text in parallel. Despite the advantage, the parallel TTS models cannot be trained without guidance from autoregressive TTS models as their external aligners. In this work, we propose Glow-TTS, a flow-based generative model for parallel TTS that does not require any external aligner. By combining the properties of flows and dynamic programming, the proposed model searches for the most probable monotonic alignment between text and the latent representation of speech on its own. We demonstrate that enforcing hard monotonic alignments enables robust TTS, which generalizes to long utterances, and employing generative flows enables fast, diverse, and controllable speech synthesis. Glow-TTS obtains an order-of-magnitude speed-up over the autoregressive model, Tacotron 2, at synthesis with comparable speech quality. We further show that our model can be easily extended to a multi-speaker setting.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Representation/Relational ]

Variational mutual information (MI) estimators are widely used in unsupervised representation learning methods such as contrastive predictive coding (CPC). A lower bound on MI can be obtained from a multi-class classification problem, where a critic attempts to distinguish a positive sample drawn from the underlying joint distribution from (m-1) negative samples drawn from a suitable proposal distribution. Using this approach, MI estimates are bounded above by \log m, and could thus severely underestimate unless m is very large. To overcome this limitation, we introduce a novel estimator based on a multi-label classification problem, where the critic needs to jointly identify \emph{multiple} positive samples at the same time. We show that using the same amount of negative samples, multi-label CPC is able to exceed the \log m bound, while still being a valid lower bound of mutual information. We demonstrate that the proposed approach is able to lead to better mutual information estimation, gain empirical improvements in unsupervised representation learning, and beat the current state-of-the-art in knowledge distillation over 10 out of 13 tasks.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Reinforcement Learning ]

A wide range of reinforcement learning (RL) problems --- including robustness, transfer learning, unsupervised RL, and emergent complexity --- require specifying a distribution of tasks or environments in which a policy will be trained. However, creating a useful distribution of environments is error prone, and takes a significant amount of developer time and effort. We propose Unsupervised Environment Design (UED) as an alternative paradigm, where developers provide environments with unknown parameters, and these parameters are used to automatically produce a distribution over valid, solvable environments. Existing approaches to automatically generating environments suffer from common failure modes: domain randomization cannot generate structure or adapt the difficulty of the environment to the agent's learning progress, and minimax adversarial training leads to worst-case environments that are often unsolvable. To generate structured, solvable environments for our protagonist agent, we introduce a second, antagonist agent that is allied with the environment-generating adversary. The adversary is motivated to generate environments which maximize regret, defined as the difference between the protagonist and antagonist agent's return. We call our technique Protagonist Antagonist Induced Regret Environment Design (PAIRED). Our experiments demonstrate that PAIRED produces a natural curriculum of increasingly complex environments, and PAIRED agents achieve higher zero-shot transfer performance …

[ Orals & Spotlights: COVID/Health/Bio Applications ]

Visual perception is critically influenced by the focus of attention. Due to limited resources, it is well known that neural representations are biased in favor of attended locations. Using concurrent eye-tracking and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) recordings from a large cohort of human subjects watching movies, we first demonstrate that leveraging gaze information, in the form of attentional masking, can significantly improve brain response prediction accuracy in a neural encoding model. Next, we propose a novel approach to neural encoding by including a trainable soft-attention module. Using our new approach, we demonstrate that it is possible to learn visual attention policies by end-to-end learning merely on fMRI response data, and without relying on any eye-tracking. Interestingly, we find that attention locations estimated by the model on independent data agree well with the corresponding eye fixation patterns, despite no explicit supervision to do so. Together, these findings suggest that attention modules can be instrumental in neural encoding models of visual stimuli.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Language/Audio Applications ]

[ Orals & Spotlights: Representation/Relational ]

While using invariant and equivariant maps, it is possible to apply deep learning to a range of primitive data structures, a formalism for dealing with hierarchy is lacking. This is a significant issue because many practical structures are hierarchies of simple building blocks; some examples include sequences of sets, graphs of graphs, or multiresolution images. Observing that the symmetry of a hierarchical structure is the ``wreath product'' of symmetries of the building blocks, we express the equivariant map for the hierarchy using an intuitive combination of the equivariant linear layers of the building blocks. More generally, we show that any equivariant map for the hierarchy has this form. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach to model design, we consider its application in the semantic segmentation of point-cloud data. By voxelizing the point cloud, we impose a hierarchy of translation and permutation symmetries on the data and report state-of-the-art on {semantic3d}, {s3dis}, and {vkitti}, that include some of the largest real-world point-cloud benchmarks.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Deep Learning ]

We propose a new class of implicit networks, the multiscale deep equilibrium model (MDEQ), suited to large-scale and highly hierarchical pattern recognition domains. An MDEQ directly solves for and backpropagates through the equilibrium points of multiple feature resolutions simultaneously, using implicit differentiation to avoid storing intermediate states (and thus requiring only O(1) memory consumption). These simultaneously-learned multi-resolution features allow us to train a single model on a diverse set of tasks and loss functions, such as using a single MDEQ to perform both image classification and semantic segmentation. We illustrate the effectiveness of this approach on two large-scale vision tasks: ImageNet classification and semantic segmentation on high-resolution images from the Cityscapes dataset. In both settings, MDEQs are able to match or exceed the performance of recent competitive computer vision models: the first time such performance and scale have been achieved by an implicit deep learning approach. The code and pre-trained models are at https://github.com/locuslab/mdeq.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Social/Privacy ]

A streaming algorithm is said to be adversarially robust if its accuracy guarantees are maintained even when the data stream is chosen maliciously, by an adaptive adversary. We establish a connection between adversarial robustness of streaming algorithms and the notion of differential privacy. This connection allows us to design new adversarially robust streaming algorithms that outperform the current state-of-the-art constructions for many interesting regimes of parameters.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Clustering/Ranking ]

[ Orals & Spotlights: Dynamical Sys/Density/Sparsity ]

Physical phenomena in the real world are often described by energy-based modeling theories, such as Hamiltonian mechanics or the Landau theory, which yield various physical laws. Recent developments in neural networks have enabled the mimicking of the energy conservation law by learning the underlying continuous-time differential equations. However, this may not be possible in discrete time, which is often the case in practical learning and computation. Moreover, other physical laws have been overlooked in the previous neural network models. In this study, we propose a deep energy-based physical model that admits a specific differential geometric structure. From this structure, the conservation or dissipation law of energy and the mass conservation law follow naturally. To ensure the energetic behavior in discrete time, we also propose an automatic discrete differentiation algorithm that enables neural networks to employ the discrete gradient method.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Vision Applications ]

We present a simple and effective approach for non-blind image deblurring, combining classical techniques and deep learning. In contrast to existing methods that deblur the image directly in the standard image space, we propose to perform an explicit deconvolution process in a feature space by integrating a classical Wiener deconvolution framework with learned deep features. A multi-scale feature refinement module then predicts the deblurred image from the deconvolved deep features, progressively recovering detail and small-scale structures. The proposed model is trained in an end-to-end manner and evaluated on scenarios with both simulated and real-world image blur. Our extensive experimental results show that the proposed deep Wiener deconvolution network facilitates deblurred results with visibly fewer artifacts. Moreover, our approach quantitatively outperforms state-of-the-art non-blind image deblurring methods by a wide margin.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Reinforcement Learning ]

[ Orals & Spotlights: Learning Theory ]

The existence of simple, uncoupled no-regret dynamics that converge to correlated equilibria in normal-form games is a celebrated result in the theory of multi-agent systems. Specifically, it has been known for more than 20 years that when all players seek to minimize their internal regret in a repeated normal-form game, the empirical frequency of play converges to a normal-form correlated equilibrium. Extensive-form (that is, tree-form) games generalize normal-form games by modeling both sequential and simultaneous moves, as well as private information. Because of the sequential nature and presence of partial information in the game, extensive-form correlation has significantly different properties than the normal-form counterpart, many of which are still open research directions. Extensive-form correlated equilibrium (EFCE) has been proposed as the natural extensive-form counterpart to normal-form correlated equilibrium. However, it was currently unknown whether EFCE emerges as the result of uncoupled agent dynamics. In this paper, we give the first uncoupled no-regret dynamics that converge to the set of EFCEs in n-player general-sum extensive-form games with perfect recall. First, we introduce a notion of trigger regret in extensive-form games, which extends that of internal regret in normal-form games. When each player has low trigger regret, the empirical frequency of play …

[ Orals & Spotlights: Clustering/Ranking ]

Recent advances in image clustering typically focus on learning better deep representations. In contrast, we present an orthogonal approach that does not rely on abstract features but instead learns to predict transformations and performs clustering directly in image space. This learning process naturally fits in the gradient-based training of K-means and Gaussian mixture model, without requiring any additional loss or hyper-parameters. It leads us to two new deep transformation-invariant clustering frameworks, which jointly learn prototypes and transformations. More specifically, we use deep learning modules that enable us to resolve invariance to spatial, color and morphological transformations. Our approach is conceptually simple and comes with several advantages, including the possibility to easily adapt the desired invariance to the task and a strong interpretability of both cluster centers and assignments to clusters. We demonstrate that our novel approach yields competitive and highly promising results on standard image clustering benchmarks. Finally, we showcase its robustness and the advantages of its improved interpretability by visualizing clustering results over real photograph collections.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Learning Theory ]

[ Orals & Spotlights: Deep Learning ]

[ Orals & Spotlights: Reinforcement Learning ]

The softmax is the standard transformation used in machine learning to map real-valued vectors to categorical distributions. Unfortunately, this transform poses serious drawbacks for gradient descent (ascent) optimization. We reveal this difficulty by establishing two negative results: (1) optimizing any expectation with respect to the softmax must exhibit sensitivity to parameter initialization (`softmax gravity well''), and (2) optimizing log-probabilities under the softmax must exhibit slow convergence (`

softmax damping''). Both findings are based on an analysis of convergence rates using the Non-uniform \L{}ojasiewicz (N\L{}) inequalities. To circumvent these shortcomings we investigate an alternative transformation, the \emph{escort} mapping, that demonstrates better optimization properties. The disadvantages of the softmax and the effectiveness of the escort transformation are further explained using the concept of N\L{} coefficient. In addition to proving bounds on convergence rates to firmly establish these results, we also provide experimental evidence for the superiority of the escort transformation.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Social/Privacy ]

We study the task of differentially private clustering. For several basic clustering problems, including Euclidean DensestBall, 1-Cluster, k-means, and k-median, we give efficient differentially private algorithms that achieve essentially the same approximation ratios as those that can be obtained by any non-private algorithm, while incurring only small additive errors. This improves upon existing efficient algorithms that only achieve some large constant approximation factors.

Our results also imply an improved algorithm for the Sample and Aggregate privacy framework. Furthermore, we show that one of the tools used in our 1-Cluster algorithm can be employed to get a faster quantum algorithm for ClosestPair in a moderate number of dimensions.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Dynamical Sys/Density/Sparsity ]

We present an efficient and practical (polynomial time) algorithm for online prediction in unknown and partially observed linear dynamical systems (LDS) under stochastic noise. When the system parameters are known, the optimal linear predictor is the Kalman filter. However, in unknown systems, the performance of existing predictive models is poor in important classes of LDS that are only marginally stable and exhibit long-term forecast memory. We tackle this problem by bounding the generalized Kolmogorov width of the Kalman filter coefficient set. This motivates the design of an algorithm, which we call spectral LDS improper predictor (SLIP), based on conducting a tight convex relaxation of the Kalman predictive model via spectral methods. We provide a finite-sample analysis, showing that our algorithm competes with the Kalman filter in hindsight with only logarithmic regret. Our regret analysis relies on Mendelson’s small-ball method, providing sharp error bounds without concentration, boundedness, or exponential forgetting assumptions. Empirical evaluations demonstrate that SLIP outperforms state-of-the-art methods in LDS prediction. Our theoretical and experimental results shed light on the conditions required for efficient probably approximately correct (PAC) learning of the Kalman filter from partially observed data.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Vision Applications ]

We present a causal inference framework to improve Weakly-Supervised Semantic Segmentation (WSSS). Specifically, we aim to generate better pixel-level pseudo-masks by using only image-level labels -- the most crucial step in WSSS. We attribute the cause of the ambiguous boundaries of pseudo-masks to the confounding context, e.g., the correct image-level classification of "horse" and "person" may be not only due to the recognition of each instance, but also their co-occurrence context, making the model inspection (e.g., CAM) hard to distinguish between the boundaries. Inspired by this, we propose a structural causal model to analyze the causalities among images, contexts, and class labels. Based on it, we develop a new method: Context Adjustment (CONTA), to remove the confounding bias in image-level classification and thus provide better pseudo-masks as ground-truth for the subsequent segmentation model. On PASCAL VOC 2012 and MS-COCO, we show that CONTA boosts various popular WSSS methods to new state-of-the-arts.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Deep Learning ]

Training generative adversarial networks (GAN) using too little data typically leads to discriminator overfitting, causing training to diverge. We propose an adaptive discriminator augmentation mechanism that significantly stabilizes training in limited data regimes. The approach does not require changes to loss functions or network architectures, and is applicable both when training from scratch and when fine-tuning an existing GAN on another dataset. We demonstrate, on several datasets, that good results are now possible using only a few thousand training images, often matching StyleGAN2 results with an order of magnitude fewer images. We expect this to open up new application domains for GANs. We also find that the widely used CIFAR-10 is, in fact, a limited data benchmark, and improve the record FID from 5.59 to 2.42.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Vision Applications ]

While recent generative models for 2D images achieve impressive visual results, they clearly lack the ability to perform 3D reasoning. This heavily restricts the degree of control over generated objects as well as the possible applications of such models. In this work, we bridge this gap by leveraging recent advances in differentiable rendering. We design a framework that can generate triangle meshes and associated high-resolution texture maps, using only 2D supervision from single-view natural images. A key contribution of our work is the encoding of the mesh and texture as 2D representations, which are semantically aligned and can be easily modeled by a 2D convolutional GAN. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method on Pascal3D+ Cars and CUB, both in an unconditional setting and in settings where the model is conditioned on class labels, attributes, and text. Finally, we propose an evaluation methodology that assesses the mesh and texture quality separately.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Dynamical Sys/Density/Sparsity ]

Continuous deep learning architectures have recently re-emerged as Neural Ordinary Differential Equations (Neural ODEs). This infinite-depth approach theoretically bridges the gap between deep learning and dynamical systems, offering a novel perspective. However, deciphering the inner working of these models is still an open challenge, as most applications apply them as generic black-box modules. In this work we ``open the box'', further developing the continuous-depth formulation with the aim of clarifying the influence of several design choices on the underlying dynamics.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Learning Theory ]

In recent years we see a rapidly growing line of research which shows learnability of various models via common neural network algorithms. Yet, besides a very few outliers, these results show learnability of models that can be learned using linear methods. Namely, such results show that learning neural-networks with gradient-descent is competitive with learning a linear classifier on top of a data-independent representation of the examples. This leaves much to be desired, as neural networks are far more successful than linear methods. Furthermore, on the more conceptual level, linear models don't seem to capture the``deepness" of deep networks. In this paper we make a step towards showing leanability of models that are inherently non-linear. We show that under certain distributions, sparse parities are learnable via gradient decent on depth-two network. On the other hand, under the same distributions, these parities cannot be learned efficiently by linear methods.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Clustering/Ranking ]

[ Orals & Spotlights: Reinforcement Learning ]

In order to deal with the curse of dimensionality in reinforcement learning (RL), it is common practice to make parametric assumptions where values or policies are functions of some low dimensional feature space. This work focuses on the representation learning question: how can we learn such features? Under the assumption that the underlying (unknown) dynamics correspond to a low rank transition matrix, we show how the representation learning question is related to a particular non-linear matrix decomposition problem. Structurally, we make precise connections between these low rank MDPs and latent variable models, showing how they significantly generalize prior formulations, such as block MDPs, for representation learning in RL. Algorithmically, we develop FLAMBE, which engages in exploration and representation learning for provably efficient RL in low rank transition models. On a technical level, our analysis eliminates reachability assumptions that appear in prior results on the simpler block MDP model and may be of independent interest.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Social/Privacy ]

We find separation rates for testing multinomial or more general discrete distributions under the constraint of alpha-local differential privacy. We construct efficient randomized algorithms and test procedures, in both the case where only non-interactive privacy mechanisms are allowed and also in the case where all sequentially interactive privacy mechanisms are allowed. The separation rates are faster in the latter case. We prove general information theoretical bounds that allow us to establish the optimality of our algorithms among all pairs of privacy mechanisms and test procedures, in most usual cases. Considered examples include testing uniform, polynomially and exponentially decreasing distributions.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Reinforcement Learning ]

Multi-task reinforcement learning (RL) aims to simultaneously learn policies for solving many tasks. Several prior works have found that relabeling past experience with different reward functions can improve sample efficiency. Relabeling methods typically pose the question: if, in hindsight, we assume that our experience was optimal for some task, for what task was it optimal? Inverse RL answers this question. In this paper we show that inverse RL is a principled mechanism for reusing experience across tasks. We use this idea to generalize goal-relabeling techniques from prior work to arbitrary types of reward functions. Our experiments confirm that relabeling data using inverse RL outperforms prior relabeling methods on goal-reaching tasks, and accelerates learning on more general multi-task settings where prior methods are not applicable, such as domains with discrete sets of rewards and those with linear reward functions.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Deep Learning/Theory ]

Implicitly defined, continuous, differentiable signal representations parameterized by neural networks have emerged as a powerful paradigm, offering many possible benefits over conventional representations. However, current network architectures for such implicit neural representations are incapable of modeling signals with fine detail, and fail to represent a signal's spatial and temporal derivatives, despite the fact that these are essential to many physical signals defined implicitly as the solution to partial differential equations. We propose to leverage periodic activation functions for implicit neural representations and demonstrate that these networks, dubbed sinusoidal representation networks or SIRENs, are ideally suited for representing complex natural signals and their derivatives. We analyze SIREN activation statistics to propose a principled initialization scheme and demonstrate the representation of images, wavefields, video, sound, and their derivatives. Further, we show how SIRENs can be leveraged to solve challenging boundary value problems, such as particular Eikonal equations (yielding signed distance functions), the Poisson equation, and the Helmholtz and wave equations. Lastly, we combine SIRENs with hypernetworks to learn priors over the space of SIREN functions.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Vision Applications ]

This paper proposes a simple self-supervised approach for learning a representation for visual correspondence from raw video. We cast correspondence as prediction of links in a space-time graph constructed from video. In this graph, the nodes are patches sampled from each frame, and nodes adjacent in time can share a directed edge. We learn a representation in which pairwise similarity defines transition probability of a random walk, such that prediction of long-range correspondence is computed as a walk along the graph. We optimize the representation to place high probability along paths of similarity. Targets for learning are formed without supervision, by cycle-consistency: the objective is to maximize the likelihood of returning to the initial node when walking along a graph constructed from a palindrome of frames. Thus, a single path-level constraint implicitly supervises chains of intermediate comparisons. When used as a similarity metric without adaptation, the learned representation outperforms the self-supervised state-of-the-art on label propagation tasks involving objects, semantic parts, and pose. Moreover, we demonstrate that a technique we call edge dropout, as well as self-supervised adaptation at test-time, further improve transfer for object-centric correspondence.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Deep Learning/Theory ]

[ Orals & Spotlights: Vision Applications ]

Pre-training is a dominant paradigm in computer vision. For example, supervised ImageNet pre-training is commonly used to initialize the backbones of object detection and segmentation models. He et al., however, show a striking result that ImageNet pre-training has limited impact on COCO object detection. Here we investigate self-training as another method to utilize additional data on the same setup and contrast it against ImageNet pre-training. Our study reveals the generality and flexibility of self-training with three additional insights: 1) stronger data augmentation and more labeled data further diminish the value of pre-training, 2) unlike pre-training, self-training is always helpful when using stronger data augmentation, in both low-data and high-data regimes, and 3) in the case that pre-training is helpful, self-training improves upon pre-training. For example, on the COCO object detection dataset, pre-training benefits when we use one fifth of the labeled data, and hurts accuracy when we use all labeled data. Self-training, on the other hand, shows positive improvements from +1.3 to +3.4AP across all dataset sizes. In other words, self-training works well exactly on the same setup that pre-training does not work (using ImageNet to help COCO). On the PASCAL segmentation dataset, which is a much smaller dataset than …

[ Orals & Spotlights: Reinforcement Learning ]

Communication lays the foundation for human cooperation. It is also crucial for multi-agent cooperation. However, existing work focuses on broadcast communication, which is not only impractical but also leads to information redundancy that could even impair the learning process. To tackle these difficulties, we propose Individually Inferred Communication (I2C), a simple yet effective model to enable agents to learn a prior for agent-agent communication. The prior knowledge is learned via causal inference and realized by a feed-forward neural network that maps the agent's local observation to a belief about who to communicate with. The influence of one agent on another is inferred via the joint action-value function in multi-agent reinforcement learning and quantified to label the necessity of agent-agent communication. Furthermore, the agent policy is regularized to better exploit communicated messages. Empirically, we show that I2C can not only reduce communication overhead but also improve the performance in a variety of multi-agent cooperative scenarios, comparing to existing methods.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Reinforcement Learning ]

Temporal-diﬀerence and Q-learning play a key role in deep reinforcement learning, where they are empowered by expressive nonlinear function approximators such as neural networks. At the core of their empirical successes is the learned feature representation, which embeds rich observations, e.g., images and texts, into the latent space that encodes semantic structures. Meanwhile, the evolution of such a feature representation is crucial to the convergence of temporal-diﬀerence and Q-learning.

In particular, temporal-diﬀerence learning converges when the function approximator is linear in a feature representation, which is ﬁxed throughout learning, and possibly diverges otherwise. We aim to answer the following questions: When the function approximator is a neural network, how does the associated feature representation evolve? If it converges, does it converge to the optimal one?

We prove that utilizing an overparameterized two-layer neural network, temporal-diﬀerence and Q-learning globally minimize the mean-squared projected Bellman error at a sublinear rate. Moreover, the associated feature representation converges to the optimal one, generalizing the previous analysis of Cai et al. (2019) in the neural tangent kernel regime, where the associated feature representation stabilizes at the initial one. The key to our analysis is a mean-ﬁeld perspective, which connects the evolution of a ﬁnite-dimensional parameter …

[ Orals & Spotlights: Deep Learning/Theory ]

Invertible neural networks based on coupling flows (CF-INNs) have various machine learning applications such as image synthesis and representation learning. However, their desirable characteristics such as analytic invertibility come at the cost of restricting the functional forms. This poses a question on their representation power: are CF-INNs universal approximators for invertible functions? Without a universality, there could be a well-behaved invertible transformation that the CF-INN can never approximate, hence it would render the model class unreliable. We answer this question by showing a convenient criterion: a CF-INN is universal if its layers contain affine coupling and invertible linear functions as special cases. As its corollary, we can affirmatively resolve a previously unsolved problem: whether normalizing flow models based on affine coupling can be universal distributional approximators. In the course of proving the universality, we prove a general theorem to show the equivalence of the universality for certain diffeomorphism classes, a theoretical insight that is of interest by itself.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Vision Applications ]

Transfer learning is a widely-used paradigm in deep learning, where models pre-trained on standard datasets can be efficiently adapted to downstream tasks. Typically, better pre-trained models yield better transfer results, suggesting that initial accuracy is a key aspect of transfer learning performance. In this work, we identify another such aspect: we find that adversarially robust models, while less accurate, often perform better than their standard-trained counterparts when used for transfer learning. Specifically, we focus on adversarially robust ImageNet classifiers, and show that they yield improved accuracy on a standard suite of downstream classification tasks. Further analysis uncovers more differences between robust and standard models in the context of transfer learning. Our results are consistent with (and in fact, add to) recent hypotheses stating that robustness leads to improved feature representations. Code and models is available in the supplementary material.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Social/Adversarial Learning ]

Recent research finds CNN models for image classification demonstrate overlapped adversarial vulnerabilities: adversarial attacks can mislead CNN models with small perturbations, which can effectively transfer between different models trained on the same dataset. Adversarial training, as a general robustness improvement technique, eliminates the vulnerability in a single model by forcing it to learn robust features. The process is hard, often requires models with large capacity, and suffers from significant loss on clean data accuracy. Alternatively, ensemble methods are proposed to induce sub-models with diverse outputs against a transfer adversarial example, making the ensemble robust against transfer attacks even if each sub-model is individually non-robust. Only small clean accuracy drop is observed in the process. However, previous ensemble training methods are not efficacious in inducing such diversity and thus ineffective on reaching robust ensemble. We propose DVERGE, which isolates the adversarial vulnerability in each sub-model by distilling non-robust features, and diversifies the adversarial vulnerability to induce diverse outputs against a transfer attack. The novel diversity metric and training procedure enables DVERGE to achieve higher robustness against transfer attacks comparing to previous ensemble methods, and enables the improved robustness when more sub-models are added to the ensemble. The code of this work …

[ Orals & Spotlights: Deep Learning ]

In this paper, we propose a number of novel techniques and numerical representation formats that enable, for the very first time, the precision of training systems to be aggressively scaled from 8-bits to 4-bits. To enable this advance, we explore a novel adaptive Gradient Scaling technique (Gradscale) that addresses the challenges of insufficient range and resolution in quantized gradients as well as explores the impact of quantization errors observed during model training. We theoretically analyze the role of bias in gradient quantization and propose solutions that mitigate the impact of this bias on model convergence. Finally, we examine our techniques on a spectrum of deep learning models in computer vision, speech, and NLP. In combination with previously proposed solutions for 4-bit quantization of weight and activation tensors, 4-bit training shows a non-significant loss in accuracy across application domains while enabling significant hardware acceleration (> 7X over state-of-the-art FP16 systems).

[ Orals & Spotlights: Optimization ]

Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) is a popular algorithm that can achieve state-of-the-art performance on a variety of machine learning tasks. Several researchers have recently proposed schemes to parallelize SGD, but all require performance-destroying memory locking and synchronization. This work aims to show using novel theoretical analysis, algorithms, and implementation that SGD can be implemented without any locking. We present an update scheme called Hogwild which allows processors access to shared memory with the possibility of overwriting each other's work. We show that when the associated optimization problem is sparse, meaning most gradient updates only modify small parts of the decision variable, then Hogwild achieves a nearly optimal rate of convergence. We demonstrate experimentally that Hogwild outperforms alternative schemes that use locking by an order of magnitude.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Kernel Methods/Optimization ]

Operator-valued kernels have shown promise in supervised learning problems with functional inputs and functional outputs. The crucial (and possibly restrictive) assumption of positive definiteness of operator-valued kernels has been instrumental in developing efficient algorithms. In this work, we consider operator-valued kernels which might not be necessarily positive definite. To tackle the indefiniteness of operator-valued kernels, we harness the machinery of Reproducing Kernel Krein Spaces (RKKS) of function-valued functions. A representer theorem is illustrated which yields a suitable loss stabilization problem for supervised learning with function-valued inputs and outputs. Analysis of generalization properties of the proposed framework is given. An iterative Operator based Minimum Residual (OpMINRES) algorithm is proposed for solving the loss stabilization problem. Experiments with indefinite operator-valued kernels on synthetic and real data sets demonstrate the utility of the proposed approach.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Probabilistic/Causality ]

Given the ever-increasing computational costs of modern machine learning models, we need to find new ways to reuse such expert models and thus tap into the resources that have been invested in their creation. Recent work suggests that the power of these massive models is captured by the representations they learn. Therefore, we seek a model that can relate between different existing representations and propose to solve this task with a conditionally invertible network. This network demonstrates its capability by (i) providing generic transfer between diverse domains, (ii) enabling controlled content synthesis by allowing modification in other domains, and (iii) facilitating diagnosis of existing representations by translating them into interpretable domains such as images. Our domain transfer network can translate between fixed representations without having to learn or finetune them. This allows users to utilize various existing domain-specific expert models from the literature that had been trained with extensive computational resources. Experiments on diverse conditional image synthesis tasks, competitive image modification results and experiments on image-to-image and text-to-image generation demonstrate the generic applicability of our approach. For example, we translate between BERT and BigGAN, state-of-the-art text and image models to provide text-to-image generation, which neither of both experts can perform …

[ Orals & Spotlights: COVID/Applications/Composition ]

We extensively study how to combine Generative Adversarial Networks and learned compression to obtain a state-of-the-art generative lossy compression system. In particular, we investigate normalization layers, generator and discriminator architectures, training strategies, as well as perceptual losses. In contrast to previous work, i) we obtain visually pleasing reconstructions that are perceptually similar to the input, ii) we operate in a broad range of bitrates, and iii) our approach can be applied to high-resolution images. We bridge the gap between rate-distortion-perception theory and practice by evaluating our approach both quantitatively with various perceptual metrics, and with a user study. The study shows that our method is preferred to previous approaches even if they use more than 2x the bitrate.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Continual/Meta/Misc Learning ]

Continually learning new skills is important for intelligent systems, yet standard deep learning methods suffer from catastrophic forgetting of the past. Recent works address this with weight regularisation. Functional regularisation, although computationally expensive, is expected to perform better, but rarely does so in practice. In this paper, we fix this issue by using a new functional-regularisation approach that utilises a few memorable past examples crucial to avoid forgetting. By using a Gaussian Process formulation of deep networks, our approach enables training in weight-space while identifying both the memorable past and a functional prior. Our method achieves state-of-the-art performance on standard benchmarks and opens a new direction for life-long learning where regularisation and memory-based methods are naturally combined.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Continual/Meta/Misc Learning ]

The continual learning problem involves training models with limited capacity to perform well on a set of an unknown number of sequentially arriving tasks. While meta-learning shows great potential for reducing interference between old and new tasks, the current training procedures tend to be either slow or offline, and sensitive to many hyper-parameters. In this work, we propose Look-ahead MAML (La-MAML), a fast optimisation-based meta-learning algorithm for online-continual learning, aided by a small episodic memory. By incorporating the modulation of per-parameter learning rates in our meta-learning update, our approach also allows us to draw connections to and exploit prior work on hypergradients and meta-descent. This provides a more flexible and efficient way to mitigate catastrophic forgetting compared to conventional prior-based methods. La-MAML achieves performance superior to other replay-based, prior-based and meta-learning based approaches for continual learning on real-world visual classification benchmarks.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Social/Adversarial Learning ]

We study an online learning problem subject to the constraint of individual fairness, which requires that similar individuals are treated similarly. Unlike prior work on individual fairness, we do not assume the similarity measure among individuals is known, nor do we assume that such measure takes a certain parametric form. Instead, we leverage the existence of an auditor who detects fairness violations without enunciating the quantitative measure. In each round, the auditor examines the learner's decisions and attempts to identify a pair of individuals that are treated unfairly by the learner. We provide a general reduction framework that reduces online classification in our model to standard online classification, which allows us to leverage existing online learning algorithms to achieve sub-linear regret and number of fairness violations. Surprisingly, in the stochastic setting where the data are drawn independently from a distribution, we are also able to establish PAC-style fairness and accuracy generalization guarantees (Rothblum and Yona (2018)), despite only having access to a very restricted form of fairness feedback. Our fairness generalization bound qualitatively matches the uniform convergence bound of Rothblum and Yona (2018), while also providing a meaningful accuracy generalization guarantee. Our results resolve an open question by Gillen et …

[ Orals & Spotlights: COVID/Applications/Composition ]

Meta-materials are an important emerging class of engineered materials in which complex macroscopic behaviour--whether electromagnetic, thermal, or mechanical--arises from modular substructure. Simulation and optimization of these materials are computationally challenging, as rich substructures necessitate high-fidelity finite element meshes to solve the governing PDEs. To address this, we leverage parametric modular structure to learn component-level surrogates, enabling cheaper high-fidelity simulation. We use a neural network to model the stored potential energy in a component given boundary conditions. This yields a structured prediction task: macroscopic behavior is determined by the minimizer of the system's total potential energy, which can be approximated by composing these surrogate models. Composable energy surrogates thus permit simulation in the reduced basis of component boundaries. Costly ground-truth simulation of the full structure is avoided, as training data are generated by performing finite element analysis of individual components. Using dataset aggregation to choose training data allows us to learn energy surrogates which produce accurate macroscopic behavior when composed, accelerating simulation of parametric meta-materials.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Deep Learning ]

Reservoir Computing is a class of simple yet efficient Recurrent Neural Networks where internal weights are fixed at random and only a linear output layer is trained. In the large size limit, such random neural networks have a deep connection with kernel methods. Our contributions are threefold: a) We rigorously establish the recurrent kernel limit of Reservoir Computing and prove its convergence. b) We test our models on chaotic time series prediction, a classic but challenging benchmark in Reservoir Computing, and show how the Recurrent Kernel is competitive and computationally efficient when the number of data points remains moderate. c) When the number of samples is too large, we leverage the success of structured Random Features for kernel approximation by introducing Structured Reservoir Computing. The two proposed methods, Recurrent Kernel and Structured Reservoir Computing, turn out to be much faster and more memory-efficient than conventional Reservoir Computing.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Probabilistic/Causality ]

One of the common ways children learn is by mimicking adults. Imitation learning focuses on learning policies with suitable performance from demonstrations generated by an expert, with an unspecified performance measure, and unobserved reward signal. Popular methods for imitation learning start by either directly mimicking the behavior policy of an expert (behavior cloning) or by learning a reward function that prioritizes observed expert trajectories (inverse reinforcement learning). However, these methods rely on the assumption that covariates used by the expert to determine her/his actions are fully observed. In this paper, we relax this assumption and study imitation learning when sensory inputs of the learner and the expert differ. First, we provide a non-parametric, graphical criterion that is complete (both necessary and sufficient) for determining the feasibility of imitation from the combinations of demonstration data and qualitative assumptions about the underlying environment, represented in the form of a causal model. We then show that when such a criterion does not hold, imitation could still be feasible by exploiting quantitative knowledge of the expert trajectories. Finally, we develop an efficient procedure for learning the imitating policy from experts' trajectories.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Optimization ]

Although optimal transport (OT) problems admit closed form solutions in a very few notable cases, e.g. in 1D or between Gaussians, these closed forms have proved extremely fecund for practitioners to define tools inspired from the OT geometry. On the other hand, the numerical resolution of OT problems using entropic regularization has given rise to many applications, but because there are no known closed-form solutions for entropic regularized OT problems, these approaches are mostly algorithmic, not informed by elegant closed forms. In this paper, we propose to fill the void at the intersection between these two schools of thought in OT by proving that the entropy-regularized optimal transport problem between two Gaussian measures admits a closed form. Contrary to the unregularized case, for which the explicit form is given by the Wasserstein-Bures distance, the closed form we obtain is differentiable everywhere, even for Gaussians with degenerate covariance matrices. We obtain this closed form solution by solving the fixed-point equation behind Sinkhorn's algorithm, the default method for computing entropic regularized OT. Remarkably, this approach extends to the generalized unbalanced case --- where Gaussian measures are scaled by positive constants. This extension leads to a closed form expression for unbalanced Gaussians as …

[ Orals & Spotlights: Kernel Methods/Optimization ]

Kernel methods provide an elegant and principled approach to nonparametric learning, but so far could hardly be used in large scale problems, since naïve implementations scale poorly with data size. Recent advances have shown the benefits of a number of algorithmic ideas, for example combining optimization, numerical linear algebra and random projections. Here, we push these efforts further to develop and test a solver that takes full advantage of GPU hardware. Towards this end, we designed a preconditioned gradient solver for kernel methods exploiting both GPU acceleration and parallelization with multiple GPUs, implementing out-of-core variants of common linear algebra operations to guarantee optimal hardware utilization. Further, we optimize the numerical precision of different operations and maximize efficiency of matrix-vector multiplications. As a result we can experimentally show dramatic speedups on datasets with billions of points, while still guaranteeing state of the art performance. Additionally, we make our software available as an easy to use library.

[ Orals & Spotlights: COVID/Applications/Composition ]

Self-organization of complex morphological patterns from local interactions is a fascinating phenomenon in many natural and artificial systems. In the artificial world, typical examples of such morphogenetic systems are cellular automata. Yet, their mechanisms are often very hard to grasp and so far scientific discoveries of novel patterns have primarily been relying on manual tuning and ad hoc exploratory search. The problem of automated diversity-driven discovery in these systems was recently introduced [26, 62], highlighting that two key ingredients are autonomous exploration and unsupervised representation learning to describe “relevant” degrees of variations in the patterns. In this paper, we motivate the need for what we call Meta-diversity search, arguing that there is not a unique ground truth interesting diversity as it strongly depends on the final observer and its motives. Using a continuous game-of-life system for experiments, we provide empirical evidences that relying on monolithic architectures for the behavioral embedding design tends to bias the final discoveries (both for hand-defined and unsupervisedly-learned features) which are unlikely to be aligned with the interest of a final end-user. To address these issues, we introduce a novel dynamic and modular architecture that enables unsupervised learning of a hierarchy of diverse representations. Combined with …

[ Orals & Spotlights: Optimization ]

Consider an oracle which takes a point x and returns the minimizer of a convex function f in an l*2 ball of radius r around x. It is straightforward to show that roughly r^{-1}\log(1/epsilon) calls to the oracle suffice to find an \epsilon-approximate minimizer of f in an l*2 unit ball. Perhaps surprisingly, this is not optimal: we design an accelerated algorithm which attains an epsilon-approximate minimizer with roughly r^{-2/3} \log(1/epsilon) oracle queries, and give a matching lower bound. Further, we implement ball optimization oracles for functions with a locally stable Hessian using a variant of Newton's method and, in certain cases, stochastic first-order methods. The resulting algorithms apply to a number of problems of practical and theoretical import, improving upon previous results for logistic and
l*infinity regression and achieving guarantees comparable to the
state-of-the-art for l*p regression.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Probabilistic/Causality ]

The Gumbel-Max trick is the basis of many relaxed gradient estimators. These estimators are easy to implement and low variance, but the goal of scaling them comprehensively to large combinatorial distributions is still outstanding. Working within the perturbation model framework, we introduce stochastic softmax tricks, which generalize the Gumbel-Softmax trick to combinatorial spaces. Our framework is a unified perspective on existing relaxed estimators for perturbation models, and it contains many novel relaxations. We design structured relaxations for subset selection, spanning trees, arborescences, and others. When compared to less structured baselines, we find that stochastic softmax tricks can be used to train latent variable models that perform better and discover more latent structure.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Kernel Methods/Optimization ]

Data augmentation has become an important part of modern deep learning pipelines and is typically needed to achieve state of the art performance for many learning tasks. It utilizes invariant transformations of the data, such as rotation, scale, and color shift, and the transformed images are added to the training set. However, these transformations are often chosen heuristically and a clear theoretical framework to explain the performance benefits of data augmentation is not available. In this paper, we develop such a framework to explain data augmentation as averaging over the orbits of the group that keeps the data distribution approximately invariant, and show that it leads to variance reduction. We study finite-sample and asymptotic empirical risk minimization and work out as examples the variance reduction in certain two-layer neural networks. We further propose a strategy to exploit the benefits of data augmentation for general learning tasks.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Continual/Meta/Misc Learning ]

The presence of missing values makes supervised learning much more challenging. Indeed, previous work has shown that even when the response is a linear function of the complete data, the optimal predictor is a complex function of the observed entries and the missingness indicator. As a result, the computational or sample complexities of consistent approaches depend on the number of missing patterns, which can be exponential in the number of dimensions. In this work, we derive the analytical form of the optimal predictor under a linearity assumption and various missing data mechanisms including Missing at Random (MAR) and self-masking (Missing Not At Random). Based on a Neumann-series approximation of the optimal predictor, we propose a new principled architecture, named NeuMiss networks. Their originality and strength come from the use of a new type of non-linearity: the multiplication by the missingness indicator. We provide an upper bound on the Bayes risk of NeuMiss networks, and show that they have good predictive accuracy with both a number of parameters and a computational complexity independent of the number of missing data patterns. As a result they scale well to problems with many features, and remain statistically efficient for medium-sized samples. Moreover, we show …

[ Orals & Spotlights: Deep Learning ]

Training recurrent neural networks (RNNs) on low-dimensional tasks has been widely used to model functional biological networks. However, the solutions found by learning and the effect of initial connectivity are not well understood. Here, we examine RNNs trained using gradient descent on different tasks inspired by the neuroscience literature. We find that the changes in recurrent connectivity can be described by low-rank matrices. This observation holds even in the presence of random initial connectivity, although this initial connectivity has full rank and significantly accelerates training. To understand the origin of these observations, we turn to an analytically tractable setting: training a linear RNN on a simpler task. We show how the low-dimensional task structure leads to low-rank changes to connectivity, and how random initial connectivity facilitates learning. Altogether, our study opens a new perspective to understand learning in RNNs in light of low-rank connectivity changes and the synergistic role of random initialization.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Social/Adversarial Learning ]

We study the problem of learning an optimal regression function subject to a fairness constraint. It requires that, conditionally on the sensitive feature, the distribution of the function output remains the same. This constraint naturally extends the notion of demographic parity, often used in classification, to the regression setting. We tackle this problem by leveraging on a proxy-discretized version, for which we derive an explicit expression of the optimal fair predictor. This result naturally suggests a two stage approach, in which we first estimate the (unconstrained) regression function from a set of labeled data and then we recalibrate it with another set of unlabeled data. The recalibration step can be efficiently performed via a smooth optimization. We derive rates of convergence of the proposed estimator to the optimal fair predictor both in terms of the risk and fairness constraint. Finally, we present numerical experiments illustrating that the proposed method is often superior or competitive with state-of-the-art methods.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Optimization ]

[ Orals & Spotlights: Graph/Meta Learning/Software ]

Offering prediction APIs for fee is a fast growing industry and is an important aspect of machine learning as a service. While many such services are available, the heterogeneity in their price and performance makes it challenging for users to decide which API or combination of APIs to use for their own data and budget. We take a first step towards addressing this challenge by proposing FrugalML, a principled framework that jointly learns the strength and weakness of each API on different data, and performs an efficient optimization to automatically identify the best sequential strategy to adaptively use the available APIs within a budget constraint. Our theoretical analysis shows that natural sparsity in the formulation can be leveraged to make FrugalML efficient. We conduct systematic experiments using ML APIs from Google, Microsoft, Amazon, IBM, Baidu and other providers for tasks including facial emotion recognition, sentiment analysis and speech recognition. Across various tasks, FrugalML can achieve up to 90% cost reduction while matching the accuracy of the best single API, or up to 5% better accuracy while matching the best API’s cost.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Learning Theory ]

The Column Subset Selection Problem (CSSP) and the Nystrom method
are among the leading tools for constructing small low-rank
approximations of large datasets in machine learning and scientific
computing. A fundamental question in this area is: how well can a data subset of
size k compete with the best rank k approximation?
We develop techniques which exploit spectral properties of the data
matrix to obtain improved approximation guarantees which go beyond the
standard worst-case analysis.
Our approach leads to significantly better bounds for datasets with
known rates of singular value decay, e.g., polynomial or exponential decay.

Our analysis also reveals an intriguing phenomenon: the approximation
factor as a function of k may exhibit multiple peaks and valleys,
which we call a multiple-descent curve.

A lower bound we establish shows that this behavior is not an artifact
of our analysis, but rather it is an inherent property of the CSSP and
Nystrom tasks. Finally, using the example of a radial basis function (RBF)
kernel, we show that both our improved bounds and the multiple-descent
curve can be observed on real datasets simply by varying the RBF parameter.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Vision Applications ]

The goal of this paper is to learn dense 3D shape correspondence for topology-varying objects in an unsupervised manner. Conventional implicit functions estimate the occupancy of a 3D point given a shape latent code. Instead, our novel implicit function produces a part embedding vector for each 3D point, which is assumed to be similar to its densely corresponded point in another 3D shape of the same object category. Furthermore, we implement dense correspondence through an inverse function mapping from the part embedding to a corresponded 3D point. Both functions are jointly learned with several effective loss functions to realize our assumption, together with the encoder generating the shape latent code. During inference, if a user selects an arbitrary point on the source shape, our algorithm can automatically generate a confidence score indicating whether there is a correspondence on the target shape, as well as the corresponding semantic point if there is. Such a mechanism inherently benefits man-made objects with different part constitutions. The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated through unsupervised 3D semantic correspondence and shape segmentation.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Graph/Meta Learning/Software ]

We present an improved method for symbolic regression that seeks to fit data to formulas that are Pareto-optimal, in the sense of having the best accuracy for a given complexity. It improves on the previous state-of-the-art by typically being orders of magnitude more robust toward noise and bad data, and also by discovering many formulas that stumped previous methods. We develop a method for discovering generalized symmetries (arbitrary modularity in the computational graph of a formula) from gradient properties of a neural network fit. We use normalizing flows to generalize our symbolic regression method to probability distributions from which we only have samples, and employ statistical hypothesis testing to accelerate robust brute-force search.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Vision Applications ]

We address the problem of fitting 3D human models to 3D scans of dressed humans. Classical methods optimize both the data-to-model correspondences and the human model parameters (pose and shape), but are reliable only when initialised close to the solution. Some methods initialize the optimization based on fully supervised correspondence predictors, which is not differentiable end-to-end, and can only process a single scan at a time. Our main contribution is LoopReg, an end-to-end learning framework to register a corpus of scans to a common 3D human model. The key idea is to create a self-supervised loop. A backward map, parameterized by a Neural Network, predicts the correspondence from every scan point to the surface of the human model. A forward map, parameterized by a human model, transforms the corresponding points back to the scan based on the model parameters (pose and shape), thus closing the loop. Formulating this closed loop is not straightforward because it is not trivial to force the output of the NN to be on the surface of the human model -- outside this surface the human model is not even defined. To this end, we propose two key innovations. First, we define the canonical surface implicitly …

[ Orals & Spotlights: Learning Theory ]

We develop a new approach to obtaining high probability regret bounds for online learning with bandit feedback against an adaptive adversary. While existing approaches all require carefully constructing optimistic and biased loss estimators, our approach uses standard unbiased estimators and relies on a simple increasing learning rate schedule, together with the help of logarithmically homogeneous self-concordant barriers and a strengthened Freedman's inequality.

Besides its simplicity, our approach enjoys several advantages. First, the obtained high-probability regret bounds are data-dependent and could be much smaller than the worst-case bounds, which resolves an open problem asked by Neu (2015). Second, resolving another open problem of Bartlett et al. (2008) and Abernethy and Rakhlin (2009), our approach leads to the first general and efficient algorithm with a high-probability regret bound for adversarial linear bandits, while previous methods are either inefficient or only applicable to specific action sets. Finally, our approach can also be applied to learning adversarial Markov Decision Processes and provides the first algorithm with a high-probability small-loss bound for this problem.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Learning Theory ]

We introduce a framework for statistical estimation that leverages knowledge of how samples are collected but makes no distributional assumptions on the data values. Specifically, we consider a population of elements [n]={1,...,n} with corresponding data values x*1,...,x*n. We observe the values for a "sample" set A \subset [n] and wish to estimate some statistic of the values for a "target" set B \subset [n] where B could be the entire set. Crucially, we assume that the sets A and B are drawn according to some known distribution P over pairs of subsets of [n]. A given estimation algorithm is evaluated based on its "worst-case, expected error" where the expectation is with respect to the distribution P from which the sample A and target sets B are drawn, and the worst-case is with respect to the data values x*1,...,x*n. Within this framework, we give an efficient algorithm for estimating the target mean that returns a weighted combination of the sample values–-where the weights are functions of the distribution P and the sample and target sets A, B--and show that the worst-case expected error achieved by this algorithm is at most a multiplicative pi/2 factor worse than the …

[ Orals & Spotlights: Vision Applications ]

Recent work has indicated that, unlike humans, ImageNet-trained CNNs tend to classify images by texture rather than by shape. How pervasive is this bias, and where does it come from? We find that, when trained on datasets of images with conflicting shape and texture, CNNs learn to classify by shape at least as easily as by texture. What factors, then, produce the texture bias in CNNs trained on ImageNet? Different unsupervised training objectives and different architectures have small but significant and largely independent effects on the level of texture bias. However, all objectives and architectures still lead to models that make texture-based classification decisions a majority of the time, even if shape information is decodable from their hidden representations. The effect of data augmentation is much larger. By taking less aggressive random crops at training time and applying simple, naturalistic augmentation (color distortion, noise, and blur), we train models that classify ambiguous images by shape a majority of the time, and outperform baselines on out-of-distribution test sets. Our results indicate that apparent differences in the way humans and ImageNet-trained CNNs process images may arise not primarily from differences in their internal workings, but from differences in the data that they …

[ Orals & Spotlights: Graph/Meta Learning/Software ]

Neural networks are sensitive to hyper-parameter and architecture choices. Automated Machine Learning (AutoML) is a promising paradigm for automating these choices. Current ML software libraries, however, are quite limited in handling the dynamic interactions among the components of AutoML. For example, efficient NAS algorithms, such as ENAS and DARTS, typically require an implementation coupling between the search space and search algorithm, the two key components in AutoML. Furthermore, implementing a complex search flow, such as searching architectures within a loop of searching hardware configurations, is difficult. To summarize, changing the search space, search algorithm, or search flow in current ML libraries usually requires a significant change in the program logic.

In this paper, we introduce a new way of programming AutoML based on symbolic programming. Under this paradigm, ML programs are mutable, thus can be manipulated easily by another program. As a result, AutoML can be reformulated as an automated process of symbolic manipulation. With this formulation, we decouple the triangle of the search algorithm, the search space and the child program. This decoupling makes it easy to change the search space and search algorithm (without and with weight sharing), as well as to add search capabilities to existing code …

[ Orals & Spotlights: Reinforcement Learning ]

We consider the problem of robust and adaptive model predictive control (MPC) of a linear system, with unknown parameters that are learned along the way (adaptive), in a critical setting where failures must be prevented (robust). This problem has been studied from different perspectives by different communities. However, the existing theory deals only with the case of quadratic costs (the LQ problem), which limits applications to stabilisation and tracking tasks only. In order to handle more general (non-convex) costs that naturally arise in many practical problems, we carefully select and bring together several tools from different communities, namely non-asymptotic linear regression, recent results in interval prediction, and tree-based planning. Combining and adapting the theoretical guarantees at each layer is non trivial, and we provide the first end-to-end suboptimality analysis for this setting. Interestingly, our analysis naturally adapts to handle many models and combines with a data-driven robust model selection strategy, which enables to relax the modelling assumptions. Last, we strive to preserve tractability at any stage of the method, that we illustrate on two challenging simulated environments.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Deep Learning ]

A residual network may be regarded as a discretization of an ordinary differential equation (ODE) which, in the limit of time discretization, defines a continuous-depth network. Although important steps have been taken to realize the advantages of such continuous formulations, most current techniques assume identical layers. Indeed, existing works throw into relief the myriad difficulties of learning an infinite-dimensional parameter in a continuous-depth neural network. To this end, we introduce a shooting formulation which shifts the perspective from parameterizing a network layer-by-layer to parameterizing over optimal networks described only by a set of initial conditions. For scalability, we propose a novel particle-ensemble parameterization which fully specifies the optimal weight trajectory of the continuous-depth neural network. Our experiments show that our particle-ensemble shooting formulation can achieve competitive performance. Finally, though the current work is inspired by continuous-depth neural networks, the particle-ensemble shooting formulation also applies to discrete-time networks and may lead to a new fertile area of research in deep learning parameterization.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Graph/Relational/Theory ]

We propose a novel graph cross network (GXN) to achieve comprehensive feature learning from multiple scales of a graph. Based on trainable hierarchical representations of a graph, GXN enables the interchange of intermediate features across scales to promote information flow. Two key ingredients of GXN include a novel vertex infomax pooling (VIPool), which creates multiscale graphs in a trainable manner, and a novel feature-crossing layer, enabling feature interchange across scales. The proposed VIPool selects the most informative subset of vertices based on the neural estimation of mutual information between vertex features and neighborhood features. The intuition behind is that a vertex is informative when it can maximally reflect its neighboring information. The proposed feature-crossing layer fuses intermediate features between two scales for mutual enhancement by improving information flow and enriching multiscale features at hidden layers. The cross shape of feature-crossing layer distinguishes GXN from many other multiscale architectures. Experimental results show that the proposed GXN improves the classification accuracy by 2.12% and 1.15% on average for graph classification and vertex classification, respectively. Based on the same network, the proposed VIPool consistently outperforms other graph-pooling methods.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Probabilistic Models/Statistics ]

The Information Bottleneck (IB) objective uses information theory to formulate a task-performance versus robustness trade-off. It has been successfully applied in the standard discriminative classification setting. We pose the question whether the IB can also be used to train generative likelihood models such as normalizing flows. Since normalizing flows use invertible network architectures (INNs), they are information-preserving by construction. This seems contradictory to the idea of a bottleneck. In this work, firstly, we develop the theory and methodology of IB-INNs, a class of conditional normalizing flows where INNs are trained using the IB objective: Introducing a small amount of controlled information loss allows for an asymptotically exact formulation of the IB, while keeping the INN's generative capabilities intact. Secondly, we investigate the properties of these models experimentally, specifically used as generative classifiers. This model class offers advantages such as improved uncertainty quantification and out-of-distribution detection, but traditional generative classifier solutions suffer considerably in classification accuracy. We find the trade-off parameter in the IB controls a mix of generative capabilities and accuracy close to standard classifiers. Empirically, our uncertainty estimates in this mixed regime compare favourably to conventional generative and discriminative classifiers. Code is provided in the supplement.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Unsupervised/Probabilistic ]

A key requirement for the success of supervised deep learning is a large labeled dataset - a condition that is difficult to meet in medical image analysis. Self-supervised learning (SSL) can help in this regard by providing a strategy to pre-train a neural network with unlabeled data, followed by fine-tuning for a downstream task with limited annotations. Contrastive learning, a particular variant of SSL, is a powerful technique for learning image-level representations. In this work, we propose strategies for extending the contrastive learning framework for segmentation of volumetric medical images in the semi-supervised setting with limited annotations, by leveraging domain-specific and problem-specific cues. Specifically, we propose (1) novel contrasting strategies that leverage structural similarity across volumetric medical images (domain-specific cue) and (2) a local version of the contrastive loss to learn distinctive representations of local regions that are useful for per-pixel segmentation (problem-specific cue). We carry out an extensive evaluation on three Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) datasets. In the limited annotation setting, the proposed method yields substantial improvements compared to other self-supervision and semi-supervised learning techniques. When combined with a simple data augmentation technique, the proposed method reaches within 8\% of benchmark performance using only two labeled MRI volumes for …

[ Orals & Spotlights: Neuroscience ]

Humans flexibly solve new problems that differ from those previously practiced. This ability to flexibly generalize is supported by learned concepts that represent useful structure common across different problems. Here we develop a naturalistic drawing task to study how humans rapidly acquire structured prior knowledge. The task requires drawing visual figures that share underlying structure, based on a set of composable geometric rules and simple objects. We show that people spontaneously learn abstract drawing procedures that support generalization, and propose a model of how learners can discover these reusable drawing procedures. Trained in the same setting as humans, and constrained to produce efficient motor actions, this model discovers new drawing program subroutines that generalize to test figures and resemble learned features of human behavior. These results suggest that two principles guiding motor program induction in the model - abstraction (programs can reflect high-level structure that ignores figure-specific details) and compositionality (new programs are discovered by recombining previously learned programs) - are key for explaining how humans learn structured internal representations that guide flexible reasoning and learning.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Optimization/Theory ]

We study the task of replicating the functionality of black-box neural models, for which we only know the output class probabilities provided for a set of input images. We assume back-propagation through the black-box model is not possible and its training images are not available, e.g. the model could be exposed only through an API. In this context, we present a teacher-student framework that can distill the black-box (teacher) model into a student model with minimal accuracy loss. To generate useful data samples for training the student, our framework (i) learns to generate images on a proxy data set (with images and classes different from those used to train the black-box) and (ii) applies an evolutionary strategy to make sure that each generated data sample exhibits a high response for a specific class when given as input to the black box. Our framework is compared with several baseline and state-of-the-art methods on three benchmark data sets. The empirical evidence indicates that our model is superior to the considered baselines. Although our method does not back-propagate through the black-box network, it generally surpasses state-of-the-art methods that regard the teacher as a glass-box model. Our code is available at: https://github.com/antoniobarbalau/black-box-ripper.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Reinforcement Learning ]

Curriculum reinforcement learning (CRL) improves the learning speed and stability of an agent by exposing it to a tailored series of tasks throughout learning. Despite empirical successes, an open question in CRL is how to automatically generate a curriculum for a given reinforcement learning (RL) agent, avoiding manual design. In this paper, we propose an answer by interpreting the curriculum generation as an inference problem, where distributions over tasks are progressively learned to approach the target task. This approach leads to an automatic curriculum generation, whose pace is controlled by the agent, with solid theoretical motivation and easily integrated with deep RL algorithms. In the conducted experiments, the curricula generated with the proposed algorithm significantly improve learning performance across several environments and deep RL algorithms, matching or outperforming state-of-the-art existing CRL algorithms.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Graph/Relational/Theory ]

Combinatorial optimization (CO) problems are notoriously challenging for neural networks, especially in the absence of labeled instances. This work proposes an unsupervised learning framework for CO problems on graphs that can provide integral solutions of certified quality.
Inspired by Erdos' probabilistic method, we use a neural network to parametrize a probability distribution over sets. Crucially, we show that when the network is optimized w.r.t. a suitably chosen loss, the learned distribution contains, with controlled probability, a low-cost integral solution that obeys the constraints of the combinatorial problem.
The probabilistic proof of existence is then derandomized to
decode the desired solutions. We demonstrate the efficacy of this approach to obtain valid

solutions to the maximum clique problem and to perform local graph clustering. Our method achieves competitive results on both real datasets and synthetic hard instances.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Deep Learning ]

[ Orals & Spotlights: Probabilistic Models/Statistics ]

Temporal point process (TPP) models combined with recurrent neural networks provide a powerful framework for modeling continuous-time event data. While such models are flexible, they are inherently sequential and therefore cannot benefit from the parallelism of modern hardware. By exploiting the recent developments in the field of normalizing flows, we design TriTPP - a new class of non-recurrent TPP models, where both sampling and likelihood computation can be done in parallel. TriTPP matches the flexibility of RNN-based methods but permits several orders of magnitude faster sampling. This enables us to use the new model for variational inference in continuous-time discrete-state systems. We demonstrate the advantages of the proposed framework on synthetic and real-world datasets.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Neuroscience ]

A common goal in the analysis of neural data is to compress large population recordings into sets of interpretable, low-dimensional latent trajectories. This problem can be approached using Gaussian process (GP)-based methods which provide uncertainty quantification and principled model selection. However, standard GP priors do not distinguish between underlying dynamical processes and other forms of temporal autocorrelation. Here, we propose a new family of “dynamical” priors over trajectories, in the form of GP covariance functions that express a property shared by most dynamical systems: temporal non-reversibility. Non-reversibility is a universal signature of autonomous dynamical systems whose state trajectories follow consistent flow fields, such that any observed trajectory could not occur in reverse. Our new multi-output GP kernels can be used as drop-in replacements for standard kernels in multivariate regression, but also in latent variable models such as Gaussian process factor analysis (GPFA). We therefore introduce GPFADS (Gaussian Process Factor Analysis with Dynamical Structure), which models single-trial neural population activity using low-dimensional, non-reversible latent processes. Unlike previously proposed non-reversible multi-output kernels, ours admits a Kronecker factorization enabling fast and memory-efficient learning and inference. We apply GPFADS to synthetic data and show that it correctly recovers ground truth phase portraits. GPFADS also …

[ Orals & Spotlights: Optimization/Theory ]

Understanding of GAN training is still very limited. One major challenge is its non-convex-non-concave min-max objective, which may lead to sub-optimal local minima. In this work, we perform a global landscape analysis of the empirical loss of GANs. We prove that a class of separable-GAN, including the original JS-GAN, has exponentially many bad basins which are perceived as mode-collapse. We also study the relativistic pairing GAN (RpGAN) loss which couples the generated samples and the true samples. We prove that RpGAN has no bad basins. Experiments on synthetic data show that the predicted bad basin can indeed appear in training. We also perform experiments to support our theory that RpGAN has a better landscape than separable-GAN. For instance, we empirically show that RpGAN performs better than separable-GAN with relatively narrow neural nets. The code is available at \url{https://github.com/AilsaF/RS-GAN}.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Unsupervised/Probabilistic ]

We introduce Bootstrap Your Own Latent (BYOL), a new approach to self-supervised image representation learning. BYOL relies on two neural networks, referred to as online and target networks, that interact and learn from each other. From an augmented view of an image, we train the online network to predict the target network representation of the same image under a different augmented view. At the same time, we update the target network with a slow-moving average of the online network. While state-of-the art methods intrinsically rely on negative pairs, BYOL achieves a new state of the art without them. BYOL reaches 74.3% top-1 classification accuracy on ImageNet using the standard linear evaluation protocol with a standard ResNet-50 architecture and 79.6% with a larger ResNet. We also show that BYOL performs on par or better than the current state of the art on both transfer and semi-supervised benchmarks.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Unsupervised/Probabilistic ]

Normalizing flows and variational autoencoders are powerful generative models that can represent complicated density functions. However, they both impose constraints on the models: Normalizing flows use bijective transformations to model densities whereas VAEs learn stochastic transformations that are non-invertible and thus typically do not provide tractable estimates of the marginal likelihood. In this paper, we introduce SurVAE Flows: A modular framework of composable transformations that encompasses VAEs and normalizing flows. SurVAE Flows bridge the gap between normalizing flows and VAEs with surjective transformations, wherein the transformations are deterministic in one direction -- thereby allowing exact likelihood computation, and stochastic in the reverse direction -- hence providing a lower bound on the corresponding likelihood. We show that several recently proposed methods, including dequantization and augmented normalizing flows, can be expressed as SurVAE Flows. Finally, we introduce common operations such as the max value, the absolute value, sorting and stochastic permutation as composable layers in SurVAE Flows.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Probabilistic Models/Statistics ]

We propose a framework for solving high-dimensional Bayesian inference problems using \emph{structure-exploiting} low-dimensional transport maps or flows. These maps are confined to a low-dimensional subspace (hence, lazy), and the subspace is identified by minimizing an upper bound on the Kullback--Leibler divergence (hence, structured). Our framework provides a principled way of identifying and exploiting low-dimensional structure in an inference problem. It focuses the expressiveness of a transport map along the directions of most significant discrepancy from the posterior, and can be used to build deep compositions of lazy maps, where low-dimensional projections of the parameters are iteratively transformed to match the posterior. We prove weak convergence of the generated sequence of distributions to the posterior, and we demonstrate the benefits of the framework on challenging inference problems in machine learning and differential equations, using inverse autoregressive flows and polynomial maps as examples of the underlying density estimators.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Reinforcement Learning ]

Recent Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithms making use of Kullback-Leibler (KL) regularization as a core component have shown outstanding performance. Yet, only little is understood theoretically about why KL regularization helps, so far. We study KL regularization within an approximate value iteration scheme and show that it implicitly averages q-values. Leveraging this insight, we provide a very strong performance bound, the very first to combine two desirable aspects: a linear dependency to the horizon (instead of quadratic) and an error propagation term involving an averaging effect of the estimation errors (instead of an accumulation effect). We also study the more general case of an additional entropy regularizer. The resulting abstract scheme encompasses many existing RL algorithms. Some of our assumptions do not hold with neural networks, so we complement this theoretical analysis with an extensive empirical study.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Neuroscience ]

A core problem in cognitive science and machine learning is to understand how humans derive semantic representations from perceptual objects, such as color from an apple, pleasantness from a musical chord, or seriousness from a face. Markov Chain Monte Carlo with People (MCMCP) is a prominent method for studying such representations, in which participants are presented with binary choice trials constructed such that the decisions follow a Markov Chain Monte Carlo acceptance rule. However, while MCMCP has strong asymptotic properties, its binary choice paradigm generates relatively little information per trial, and its local proposal function makes it slow to explore the parameter space and find the modes of the distribution. Here we therefore generalize MCMCP to a continuous-sampling paradigm, where in each iteration the participant uses a slider to continuously manipulate a single stimulus dimension to optimize a given criterion such as ‘pleasantness’. We formulate both methods from a utility-theory perspective, and show that the new method can be interpreted as ‘Gibbs Sampling with People’ (GSP). Further, we introduce an aggregation parameter to the transition step, and show that this parameter can be manipulated to flexibly shift between Gibbs sampling and deterministic optimization. In an initial study, we show GSP …

[ Orals & Spotlights: Optimization/Theory ]

Optimal Transport (OT) distances are now routinely used as loss functions in ML tasks. Yet, computing OT distances between arbitrary (i.e. not necessarily discrete) probability distributions remains an open problem. This paper introduces a new online estimator of entropy-regularized OT distances between two such arbitrary distributions. It uses streams of samples from both distributions to iteratively enrich a non-parametric representation of the transportation plan. Compared to the classic Sinkhorn algorithm, our method leverages new samples at each iteration, which enables a consistent estimation of the true regularized OT distance. We provide a theoretical analysis of the convergence of the online Sinkhorn algorithm, showing a nearly-1/n asymptotic sample complexity for the iterate sequence. We validate our method on synthetic 1-d to 10-d data and on real 3-d shape data.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Graph/Relational/Theory ]

We study the problem of semi-supervised learning on graphs, for which graph neural networks (GNNs) have been extensively explored. However, most existing GNNs inherently suffer from the limitations of over-smoothing, non-robustness, and weak-generalization when labeled nodes are scarce. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective framework—GRAPH RANDOM NEURAL NETWORKS (GRAND)—to address these issues. In GRAND, we first design a random propagation strategy to perform graph data augmentation. Then we leverage consistency regularization to optimize the prediction consistency of unlabeled nodes across different data augmentations. Extensive experiments on graph benchmark datasets suggest that GRAND significantly outperforms state-of- the-art GNN baselines on semi-supervised node classification. Finally, we show that GRAND mitigates the issues of over-smoothing and non-robustness, exhibiting better generalization behavior than existing GNNs. The source code of GRAND is publicly available at https://github.com/Grand20/grand.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Deep Learning ]

We describe a procedure for explaining neurons in deep representations by identifying compositional logical concepts that closely approximate neuron behavior. Compared to prior work that uses atomic labels as explanations, analyzing neurons compositionally allows us to more precisely and expressively characterize their behavior. We use this procedure to answer several questions on interpretability in models for vision and natural language processing. First, we examine the kinds of abstractions learned by neurons. In image classification, we find that many neurons learn highly abstract but semantically coherent visual concepts, while other polysemantic neurons detect multiple unrelated features; in natural language inference (NLI), neurons learn shallow lexical heuristics from dataset biases. Second, we see whether compositional explanations give us insight into model performance: vision neurons that detect human-interpretable concepts are positively correlated with task performance, while NLI neurons that fire for shallow heuristics are negatively correlated with task performance. Finally, we show how compositional explanations provide an accessible way for end users to produce simple "copy-paste" adversarial examples that change model behavior in predictable ways.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Deep Learning ]

Normalization operations are widely used to train deep neural networks, and they can improve both convergence and generalization in most tasks. The theories for normalization's effectiveness and new forms of normalization have always been hot topics in research. To better understand normalization, one question can be whether normalization is indispensable for training deep neural network? In this paper, we study what would happen when normalization layers are removed from the network, and show how to train deep neural networks without normalization layers and without performance degradation. Our proposed method can achieve the same or even slightly better performance in a variety of tasks: image classification in ImageNet, object detection and segmentation in MS-COCO, video classification in Kinetics, and machine translation in WMT English-German, etc. Our study may help better understand the role of normalization layers and can be a competitive alternative to normalization layers. Codes are available.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Neuroscience/Probabilistic ]

Sparse sequences of neural spikes are posited to underlie aspects of working memory, motor production, and learning. Discovering these sequences in an unsupervised manner is a longstanding problem in statistical neuroscience. Promising recent work utilized a convolutive nonnegative matrix factorization model to tackle this challenge. However, this model requires spike times to be discretized, utilizes a sub-optimal least-squares criterion, and does not provide uncertainty estimates for model predictions or estimated parameters. We address each of these shortcomings by developing a point process model that characterizes fine-scale sequences at the level of individual spikes and represents sequence occurrences as a small number of marked events in continuous time. This ultra-sparse representation of sequence events opens new possibilities for spike train modeling. For example, we introduce learnable time warping parameters to model sequences of varying duration, which have been experimentally observed in neural circuits. We demonstrate these advantages on recordings from songbird higher vocal center and rodent hippocampus.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Health/AutoML/(Soft|Hard)ware ]

Despite its high search efficiency, differential architecture search (DARTS) often selects network architectures with dominated skip connections which lead to performance degradation. However, theoretical understandings on this issue remain absent, hindering the development of more advanced methods in a principled way. In this work, we solve this problem by theoretically analyzing the effects of various types of operations, e.g. convolution, skip connection and zero operation, to the network optimization. We prove that the architectures with more skip connections can converge faster than the other candidates, and thus are selected by DARTS. This result, for the first time, theoretically and explicitly reveals the impact of skip connections to fast network optimization and its competitive advantage over other types of operations in DARTS. Then we propose a theory-inspired path-regularized DARTS that consists of two key modules: (i) a differential group-structured sparse binary gate introduced for each operation to avoid unfair competition among operations, and (ii) a path-depth-wise regularization used to incite search exploration for deep architectures that often converge slower than shallow ones as shown in our theory and are not well explored during search. Experimental results on image classification tasks validate its advantages. Codes and models will be released.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Optimization ]

We propose a new randomized algorithm for solving L2-regularized least-squares problems based on sketching. We consider two of the most popular random embeddings, namely, Gaussian embeddings and the Subsampled Randomized Hadamard Transform (SRHT). While current randomized solvers for least-squares optimization prescribe an embedding dimension at least greater than the data dimension, we show that the embedding dimension can be reduced to the effective dimension of the optimization problem, and still preserve high-probability convergence guarantees. In this regard, we derive sharp matrix deviation inequalities over ellipsoids for both Gaussian and SRHT embeddings. Specifically, we improve on the constant of a classical Gaussian concentration bound whereas, for SRHT embeddings, our deviation inequality involves a novel technical approach. Leveraging these bounds, we are able to design a practical and adaptive algorithm which does not require to know the effective dimension beforehand. Our method starts with an initial embedding dimension equal to 1 and, over iterations, increases the embedding dimension up to the effective one at most. Hence, our algorithm improves the state-of-the-art computational complexity for solving regularized least-squares problems. Further, we show numerically that it outperforms standard iterative solvers such as the conjugate gradient method and its pre-conditioned version on several standard machine …

[ Orals & Spotlights: Health/AutoML/(Soft|Hard)ware ]

Variational Bayesian phylogenetic inference (VBPI) provides a promising general variational framework for efficient estimation of phylogenetic posteriors. However, the current diagonal Lognormal branch length approximation would significantly restrict the quality of the approximating distributions. In this paper, we propose a new type of VBPI, VBPI-NF, as a first step to empower phylogenetic posterior estimation with deep learning techniques. By handling the non-Euclidean branch length space of phylogenetic models with carefully designed permutation equivariant transformations, VBPI-NF uses normalizing flows to provide a rich family of flexible branch length distributions that generalize across different tree topologies. We show that VBPI-NF significantly improves upon the vanilla VBPI on a benchmark of challenging real data Bayesian phylogenetic inference problems. Further investigation also reveals that the structured parameterization in those permutation equivariant transformations can provide additional amortization benefit.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Optimization ]

The extension of classical online algorithms when provided with predictions is a new and active research area. In this paper, we extend the primal-dual method for online algorithms in order to incorporate predictions that advise the online algorithm about the next action to take. We use this framework to obtain novel algorithms for a variety of online covering problems. We compare our algorithms to the cost of the true and predicted offline optimal solutions and show that these algorithms outperform any online algorithm when the prediction is accurate while maintaining good guarantees when the prediction is misleading.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Neuroscience/Probabilistic ]

Reconstructing seeing images from fMRI recordings is an absorbing research area in neuroscience and provides a potential brain-reading technology. The challenge lies in that visual encoding in brain is highly complex and not fully revealed. Inspired by the theory that visual features are hierarchically represented in cortex, we propose to break the complex visual signals into multi-level components and decode each component separately. Specifically, we decode shape and semantic representations from the lower and higher visual cortex respectively, and merge the shape and semantic information to images by a generative adversarial network (Shape-Semantic GAN). This 'divide and conquer' strategy captures visual information more accurately. Experiments demonstrate that Shape-Semantic GAN improves the reconstruction similarity and image quality, and achieves the state-of-the-art image reconstruction performance.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Deep Learning ]

Natural Gradient Descent (NGD) helps to accelerate the convergence of gradient descent dynamics, but it requires approximations in large-scale deep neural networks because of its high computational cost. Empirical studies have confirmed that some NGD methods with approximate Fisher information converge sufficiently fast in practice. Nevertheless, it remains unclear from the theoretical perspective why and under what conditions such heuristic approximations work well. In this work, we reveal that, under specific conditions, NGD with approximate Fisher information achieves the same fast convergence to global minima as exact NGD. We consider deep neural networks in the infinite-width limit, and analyze the asymptotic training dynamics of NGD in function space via the neural tangent kernel. In the function space, the training dynamics with the approximate Fisher information are identical to those with the exact Fisher information, and they converge quickly. The fast convergence holds in layer-wise approximations; for instance, in block diagonal approximation where each block corresponds to a layer as well as in block tri-diagonal and K-FAC approximations. We also find that a unit-wise approximation achieves the same fast convergence under some assumptions. All of these different approximations have an isotropic gradient in the function space, and this plays a fundamental …

[ Orals & Spotlights: Optimization ]

[ Orals & Spotlights: Deep Learning ]

We study the eigenvalue distributions of the Conjugate Kernel and Neural Tangent Kernel associated to multi-layer feedforward neural networks. In an asymptotic regime where network width is increasing linearly in sample size, under random initialization of the weights, and for input samples satisfying a notion of approximate pairwise orthogonality, we show that the eigenvalue distributions of the CK and NTK converge to deterministic limits. The limit for the CK is described by iterating the Marcenko-Pastur map across the hidden layers. The limit for the NTK is equivalent to that of a linear combination of the CK matrices across layers, and may be described by recursive fixed-point equations that extend this Marcenko-Pastur map. We demonstrate the agreement of these asymptotic predictions with the observed spectra for both synthetic and CIFAR-10 training data, and we perform a small simulation to investigate the evolutions of these spectra over training.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Neuroscience/Probabilistic ]

Cooperative communication plays a central role in theories of human cognition, language, development, culture, and human-robot interaction. Prior models of cooperative communication are algorithmic in nature and do not shed light on why cooperation may yield effective belief transmission and what limitations may arise due to differences between beliefs of agents. Through a connection to the theory of optimal transport, we establishing a mathematical framework for cooperative communication. We derive prior models as special cases, statistical interpretations of belief transfer plans, and proofs of robustness and instability. Computational simulations support and elaborate our theoretical results, and demonstrate fit to human behavior. The results show that cooperative communication provably enables effective, robust belief transmission which is required to explain feats of human learning and improve human-machine interaction.

[ Orals & Spotlights: Health/AutoML/(Soft|Hard)ware ]

Most compilers for machine learning (ML) frameworks need to solve many correlated optimization problems to generate efficient machine code. Current ML compilers rely on heuristics based algorithms to solve these optimization problems one at a time. However, this approach is not only hard to maintain but often leads to sub-optimal solutions especially for newer model architectures. Existing learning based approaches in the literature are sample inefficient, tackle a single optimization problem, and do not generalize to unseen graphs making them infeasible to be deployed in practice. To address these limitations, we propose an end-to-end, transferable deep reinforcement learning method for computational graph optimization (GO), based on a scalable sequential attention mechanism over an inductive graph neural network. GO generates decisions on the entire graph rather than on each individual node autoregressively, drastically speeding up the search compared to prior methods. Moreover, we propose recurrent attention layers to jointly optimize dependent graph optimization tasks and demonstrate 33%-60% speedup on three graph optimization tasks compared to TensorFlow default optimization. On a diverse set of representative graphs consisting of up to 80,000 nodes, including Inception-v3, Transformer-XL, and WaveNet, GO achieves on average 21% improvement over human experts and 18% improvement over the prior …