Workshop: Differential Geometry meets Deep Learning (DiffGeo4DL)

Quaternion Graph Neural Networks

Dai Quoc Nguyen · Tu Dinh Nguyen · Dinh Phung


Recently, graph neural networks (GNNs) become a principal research direction to learn low-dimensional continuous embeddings of nodes and graphs to predict node and graph labels, respectively. However, Euclidean embeddings have high distortion when using GNNs to model complex graphs such as social networks. Furthermore, existing GNNs are not very efficient with the high number of model parameters when increasing the number of hidden layers. Therefore, we move beyond the Euclidean space to a hyper-complex vector space to improve graph representation quality and reduce the number of model parameters. To this end, we propose quaternion graph neural networks (QGNN) to generalize GCNs within the Quaternion space to learn quaternion embeddings for nodes and graphs. The Quaternion space, a hyper-complex vector space, provides highly meaningful computations through Hamilton product compared to the Euclidean and complex vector spaces. As a result, our QGNN can reduce the model size up to four times and enhance learning better graph representations. Experimental results show that the proposed QGNN produces state-of-the-art accuracies on a range of well-known benchmark datasets for three downstream tasks, including graph classification, semi-supervised node classification, and text (node) classification.

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