Keywords: [ Optimization ] [ Transfer Learning ] [ Self-Supervised Learning ] [ Machine Learning ] [ Vision ] [ Contrastive Learning ] [ Representation Learning ]
Contrastive self-supervised learning (CSL) has attracted increasing attention for model pre-training via unlabeled data. The resulted CSL models provide instance-discriminative visual features that are uniformly scattered in the feature space. During deployment, the common practice is to directly fine-tune CSL models with cross-entropy, which however may not be the best strategy in practice. Although cross-entropy tends to separate inter-class features, the resulting models still have limited capability for reducing intra-class feature scattering that exists in CSL models. In this paper, we investigate whether applying contrastive learning to fine-tuning would bring further benefits, and analytically find that optimizing the contrastive loss benefits both discriminative representation learning and model optimization during fine-tuning. Inspired by these findings, we propose Contrast-regularized tuning (Core-tuning), a new approach for fine-tuning CSL models. Instead of simply adding the contrastive loss to the objective of fine-tuning, Core-tuning further applies a novel hard pair mining strategy for more effective contrastive fine-tuning, as well as smoothing the decision boundary to better exploit the learned discriminative feature space. Extensive experiments on image classification and semantic segmentation verify the effectiveness of Core-tuning.