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Robust Implicit Networks via Non-Euclidean Contractions

Saber Jafarpour · Alexander Davydov · Anton Proskurnikov · Francesco Bullo


Keywords: [ Vision ] [ Robustness ] [ Machine Learning ] [ Theory ] [ Deep Learning ]

Abstract: Implicit neural networks, a.k.a., deep equilibrium networks, are a class of implicit-depth learning models where function evaluation is performed by solving a fixed point equation. They generalize classic feedforward models and are equivalent to infinite-depth weight-tied feedforward networks. While implicit models show improved accuracy and significant reduction in memory consumption, they can suffer from ill-posedness and convergence instability.This paper provides a new framework, which we call Non-Euclidean Monotone Operator Network (NEMON), to design well-posed and robust implicit neural networks based upon contraction theory for the non-Euclidean norm $\ell_\infty$. Our framework includes (i) a novel condition for well-posedness based on one-sided Lipschitz constants, (ii) an average iteration for computing fixed-points, and (iii) explicit estimates on input-output Lipschitz constants. Additionally, we design a training problem with the well-posedness condition and the average iteration as constraints and, to achieve robust models, with the input-output Lipschitz constant as a regularizer. Our $\ell_\infty$ well-posedness condition leads to a larger polytopic training search space than existing conditions and our average iteration enjoys accelerated convergence. Finally, we evaluate our framework in image classification through the MNIST and the CIFAR-10 datasets. Our numerical results demonstrate improved accuracy and robustness of the implicit models with smaller input-output Lipschitz bounds. Code is available at

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