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Adaptive Test-Time Personalization for Federated Learning

Wenxuan Bao · Tianxin Wei · Haohan Wang · Jingrui He

Great Hall & Hall B1+B2 (level 1) #1014
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[ Paper [ Slides [ Poster [ OpenReview
Tue 12 Dec 8:45 a.m. PST — 10:45 a.m. PST


Personalized federated learning algorithms have shown promising results in adapting models to various distribution shifts. However, most of these methods require labeled data on testing clients for personalization, which is usually unavailable in real-world scenarios. In this paper, we introduce a novel setting called test-time personalized federated learning (TTPFL), where clients locally adapt a global model in an unsupervised way without relying on any labeled data during test-time. While traditional test-time adaptation (TTA) can be used in this scenario, most of them inherently assume training data come from a single domain, while they come from multiple clients (source domains) with different distributions. Overlooking these domain interrelationships can result in suboptimal generalization. Moreover, most TTA algorithms are designed for a specific kind of distribution shift and lack the flexibility to handle multiple kinds of distribution shifts in FL. In this paper, we find that this lack of flexibility partially results from their pre-defining which modules to adapt in the model. To tackle this challenge, we propose a novel algorithm called ATP to adaptively learns the adaptation rates for each module in the model from distribution shifts among source domains. Theoretical analysis proves the strong generalization of ATP. Extensive experiments demonstrate its superiority in handling various distribution shifts including label shift, image corruptions, and domain shift, outperforming existing TTA methods across multiple datasets and model architectures. Our code is available at

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