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Workshop: MATH-AI: The 3rd Workshop on Mathematical Reasoning and AI

Can We Count on Deep Learning: Exploring and Characterizing Combinatorial Structures Using Machine Learning

Helen Jenne · Herman Chau · Davis Brown · Jackson Warley · Tim Doster · Henry Kvinge

Keywords: [ deep learning explainability ] [ symmetric group ] [ combinatorics ] [ Deep learning for pure math ] [ Shapley values ]


With its exceptional pattern matching ability, deep learning has proven to be a powerful tool in a range of scientific domains. This is increasingly true in research mathematics, where recent work has demonstrated deep learning's ability to highlight subtle connections between mathematical objects that might escape a human expert. In this work we describe a simple method to help domain experts characterize a set of mathematical objects using deep learning. Such characterization problems often occur when some particular class of function, space, linear representation, etc. naturally emerges in calculations or other means but lacks a simple description. The goal is to find simple rules that also ideally shed light on the underlying mathematics. Our method, which we call Feature Attribution Clustering for Exploration (FACE), clusters the feature attribution representations extracted from a trained model, arriving at a short list of prototype attributions that the domain expert can then try to convert into formal and rigorous rules. As a case study, we use our method to derive a new result in combinatorics by characterizing a subset of 0-1 matrices that corresponds to certain representations of permutations known as two-sided ordered words.

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