Keywords: [ Adversarial Defense ] [ model ensemble. ] [ collaboration ]
Learning adversarially robust models require invariant predictions to a small neighborhood of its natural inputs, often encountering insufficient model capacity. There is research showing that learning multiple sub-models in an ensemble could mitigate this insufficiency, further improving the generalization and the robustness. However, the ensemble's voting-based strategy excludes the possibility that the true predictions remain with the minority. Therefore, this paper further improves the ensemble through a collaboration scheme---Synergy-of-Experts (SoE). Compared with the voting-based strategy, the SoE enables the possibility of correct predictions even if there exists a single correct sub-model. In SoE, every sub-model fits its specific vulnerability area and reserves the rest of the sub-models to fit other vulnerability areas, which effectively optimizes the utilization of the model capacity. Empirical experiments verify that SoE outperforms various ensemble methods against white-box and transfer-based adversarial attacks.