Keywords: [ Discrete optimization ] [ Graph Coloring ] [ Error-Correcting Output Codes ] [ Classification ] [ transfer-learning ]
We study the problem of scalable design of Error-Correcting Output Codes (ECOC) for multi-class classification. Prior works on ECOC-based classifiers are limited to codebooks with small number of rows (classes) or columns, and do not provide optimality guarantees for the codebook design problem. We address these limitations by developing a codebook design approach based on a Mixed-Integer Quadratically Constrained Program (MIQCP). This discrete formulation is naturally suited for maximizing the error-correction capability of ECOC-based classifiers and incorporates various design criteria in a flexible manner. Our solution approach is tractable in that it incrementally increases the codebook size by adding columns to maximize the gain in error-correcting capability. In particular, we show that the maximal gain in error-correction can be upper bounded by solving a graph-coloring problem. As a result, we can efficiently generate near-optimal codebooks for very large problem instances. These codebooks provide competitive multi-class classification performance on small class datasets such as MNIST and CIFAR10. Moreover, by leveraging transfer-learned binary classifiers, we achieve better classification performance over transfer-learned multi-class CNNs on large class datasets such as CIFAR100, Caltech-101/256. Our results highlight the advantages of simple and modular ECOC-based classifiers in improving classification accuracy without the risk of overfitting.