Extreme Multi-label Text Classification (XMC) involves learning a classifier that can assign an input with a subset of most relevant labels from millions of label choices. Recent approaches, such as XR-Transformer and LightXML, leverage a transformer instance to achieve state-of-the-art performance. However, in this process, these approaches need to make various trade-offs between performance and computational requirements. A major shortcoming, as compared to the Bi-LSTM based AttentionXML, is that they fail to keep separate feature representations for each resolution in a label tree. We thus propose CascadeXML, an end-to-end multi-resolution learning pipeline, which can harness the multi-layered architecture of a transformer model for attending to different label resolutions with separate feature representations. CascadeXML significantly outperforms all existing approaches with non-trivial gains obtained on benchmark datasets consisting of up to three million labels. Code for CascadeXML will be made publicly available at https://github.com/xmc-aalto/cascadexml.