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[2nd] Oral Presentation
Workshop: Vision Transformers: Theory and applications

Matryoshka Representations for Adaptive Deployment

Aniket Rege · Aditya Kusupati · Gantavya Bhatt · Matthew Wallingford · Aditya Sinha · Vivek Ramanujan · William Howard-Snyder · Kaifeng Chen · Sham Kakade · Prateek Jain · Ali Farhadi


Learned representations are a central component in modern ML systems, serving a multitude of downstream tasks. When training such representations, it is often the case that computational and statistical constraints for each downstream task are unknown. In this context, rigid fixed-capacity representations can be either over or under-accommodating to the task at hand. This leads us to ask: can we design a flexible representation that can adapt to multiple downstream tasks with varying computational resources? Our main contribution is Matryoshka Representation Learning (MRL) which encodes information at different granularities and allows a single embedding to adapt to the computational constraints of downstream tasks. MRL minimally modifies existing representation learning pipelines and imposes no additional cost during inference and deployment. MRL learns coarse-to-fine representations that are at least as accurate and rich as independently trained low-dimensional representations. The flexibility within the learned Matryoshka Representations offer: (a) up to 14× smaller embedding size for ImageNet-1K classification at the same level of accuracy; (b) up to 14× real-world speed-ups for large-scale retrieval on ImageNet-1K and 4K; and (c) up to 2% accuracy improvements for long-tail few-shot classification, all while being as robust as the original representations. Finally, we show that MRL extends seamlessly to web-scale datasets (ImageNet, JFT) across various modalities – vision (ViT, ResNet), vision + language (ALIGN) and language (BERT).

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