Workshop: NeurIPS 2022 Workshop on Score-Based Methods

Scalable Causal Discovery with Score Matching

Francesco Montagna · Nicoletta Noceti · Lorenzo Rosasco · Kun Zhang · Francesco Locatello

Abstract: This paper demonstrates how to discover the whole causal graph from the second derivative of the log-likelihood in observational non-linear additive Gaussian noise models. Leveraging scalable machine learning approaches to approximate the score function $\nabla \operatorname{log}p(\mathbf{X})$, we extend the work of Rolland et al., 2022, that only recovers the topological order from the score and requires an expensive pruning step to discover the edges.Our analysis leads to DAS, a practical algorithm that reduces the complexity of the pruning by a factor proportional to the graph size. In practice, DAS achieves competitive accuracy with current state-of-the-art while being over an order of magnitude faster. Overall, our approach enables principled and scalable causal discovery, significantly lowering the compute bar.

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