Our work focuses on tackling large-scale fine-grained image retrieval as ranking the images depicting the concept of interests (i.e., the same sub-category labels) highest based on the fine-grained details in the query. It is desirable to alleviate the challenges of both fine-grained nature of small inter-class variations with large intra-class variations and explosive growth of fine-grained data for such a practical task. In this paper, we propose an Attribute-Aware hashing Network (A$^2$-Net) for generating attribute-aware hash codes to not only make the retrieval process efficient, but also establish explicit correspondences between hash codes and visual attributes. Specifically, based on the captured visual representations by attention, we develop an encoder-decoder structure network of a reconstruction task to unsupervisedly distill high-level attribute-specific vectors from the appearance-specific visual representations without attribute annotations. A$^2$-Net is also equipped with a feature decorrelation constraint upon these attribute vectors to enhance their representation abilities. Finally, the required hash codes are generated by the attribute vectors driven by preserving original similarities. Qualitative experiments on five benchmark fine-grained datasets show our superiority over competing methods. More importantly, quantitative results demonstrate the obtained hash codes can strongly correspond to certain kinds of crucial properties of fine-grained objects.