Several out-of-distribution (OOD) detection scores have been recently proposed for deep generative models because the direct use of the likelihood threshold for OOD detection has been shown to be problematic. In this paper, we propose a new OOD score based on a Bayesian hypothesis test called the locally most powerful Bayesian test (LMPBT). The LMPBT is locally most powerful in that the alternative hypothesis (the representative parameter for the OOD sample) is specified to maximize the probability that the Bayes factor exceeds the evidence threshold in favor of the alternative hypothesis provided that the parameter specified under the alternative hypothesis is in the neighborhood of the parameter specified under the null hypothesis. That is, under this neighborhood parameter condition, the test with the proposed alternative hypothesis maximizes the probability of correct detection of OOD samples. We also propose numerical strategies for more efficient and reliable computation of the LMPBT for practical application to deep generative models. Evaluations conducted of the OOD detection performance of the LMPBT on various benchmark datasets demonstrate its superior performance over existing OOD detection methods.