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M5HisDoc: A Large-scale Multi-style Chinese Historical Document Analysis Benchmark

Yongxin Shi · Chongyu Liu · Dezhi Peng · Cheng Jian · Jiarong Huang · Lianwen Jin

Great Hall & Hall B1+B2 (level 1) #117
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[ Paper [ Poster [ OpenReview
Tue 12 Dec 8:45 a.m. PST — 10:45 a.m. PST


Recognizing and organizing text in correct reading order plays a crucial role in historical document analysis and preservation. While existing methods have shown promising performance, they often struggle with challenges such as diverse layouts, low image quality, style variations, and distortions. This is primarily due to the lack of consideration for these issues in the current benchmarks, which hinders the development and evaluation of historical document analysis and recognition (HDAR) methods in complex real-world scenarios. To address this gap, this paper introduces a complex multi-style Chinese historical document analysis benchmark, named M5HisDoc. The M5 indicates five properties of style, ie., Multiple layouts, Multiple document types, Multiple calligraphy styles, Multiple backgrounds, and Multiple challenges. The M5HisDoc dataset consists of two subsets, M5HisDoc-R (Regular) and M5HisDoc-H (Hard). The M5HisDoc-R subset comprises 4,000 historical document images. To ensure high-quality annotations, we meticulously perform manual annotation and triple-checking. To replicate real-world conditions for historical document analysis applications, we incorporate image rotation, distortion, and resolution reduction into M5HisDoc-R subset to form a new challenging subset named M5HisDoc-H, which contains the same number of images as M5HisDoc-R. The dataset exhibits diverse styles, significant scale variations, dense texts, and an extensive character set. We conduct benchmarking experiments on five tasks: text line detection, text line recognition, character detection, character recognition, and reading order prediction. We also conduct cross-validation with other benchmarks. Experimental results demonstrate that the M5HisDoc dataset can offer new challenges and great opportunities for future research in this field, thereby providing deep insights into the solution for HDAR. The dataset is available at

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