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Empowering Collaborative Filtering with Principled Adversarial Contrastive Loss

An Zhang · Leheng Sheng · Zhibo Cai · Xiang Wang · Tat-Seng Chua

Great Hall & Hall B1+B2 (level 1) #2010
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[ Paper [ Poster [ OpenReview
Wed 13 Dec 3 p.m. PST — 5 p.m. PST


Contrastive Learning (CL) has achieved impressive performance in self-supervised learning tasks, showing superior generalization ability. Inspired by the success, adopting CL into collaborative filtering (CF) is prevailing in semi-supervised topK recommendations. The basic idea is to routinely conduct heuristic-based data augmentation and apply contrastive losses (e.g., InfoNCE) on the augmented views. Yet, some CF-tailored challenges make this adoption suboptimal, such as the issue of out-of-distribution, the risk of false negatives, and the nature of top-K evaluation. They necessitate the CL-based CF scheme to focus more on mining hard negatives and distinguishing false negatives from the vast unlabeled user-item interactions, for informative contrast signals. Worse still, there is limited understanding of contrastive loss in CF methods, especially w.r.t. its generalization ability. To bridge the gap, we delve into the reasons underpinning the success of contrastive loss in CF, and propose a principled Adversarial InfoNCE loss (AdvInfoNCE), which is a variant of InfoNCE, specially tailored for CF methods. AdvInfoNCE adaptively explores and assigns hardness to each negative instance in an adversarial fashion and further utilizes a fine-grained hardness-aware ranking criterion to empower the recommender’s generalization ability. Training CF models with AdvInfoNCE, we validate the effectiveness of AdvInfoNCE on both synthetic and real-world benchmark datasets, thus showing its generalization ability to mitigate out-of-distribution problems. Given the theoretical guarantees and empirical superiority of AdvInfoNCE over most contrastive loss functions, we advocate its adoption as a standard loss in recommender systems, particularly for the out-of-distribution tasks. Codes are available at

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