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## Efficient Sampling of Stochastic Differential Equations with Positive Semi-Definite Models

### Anant Raj · Umut Simsekli · Alessandro Rudi

##### Great Hall & Hall B1+B2 (level 1) #1006

Abstract:
This paper deals with the problem of efficient sampling from a stochastic differential equation, given the drift function and the diffusion matrix. The proposed approach leverages a recent model for probabilities (Rudi and Ciliberto, 2021) (the positive semi-definite -- PSD model) from which it is possible to obtain independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) samples at precision $\varepsilon$ with a cost that is $m^2 d \log(1/\varepsilon)$ where $m$ is the dimension of the model, $d$ the dimension of the space. The proposed approach consists in: first, computing the PSD model that satisfies the Fokker-Planck equation (or its fractional variant) associated with the SDE, up to error $\varepsilon$, and then sampling from the resulting PSD model. Assuming some regularity of the Fokker-Planck solution (i.e. $\beta$-times differentiability plus some geometric condition on its zeros) We obtain an algorithm that: (a) in the preparatory phase obtains a PSD model with L2 distance $\varepsilon$ from the solution of the equation, with a model of dimension $m = \varepsilon^{-(d+1)/(\beta-2s)} (\log(1/\varepsilon))^{d+1}$ where $1/2\leq s\leq1$ is the fractional power to the Laplacian, and total computational complexity of $O(m^{3.5} \log(1/\varepsilon))$ and then (b) for Fokker-Planck equation, it is able to produce i.i.d.\ samples with error $\varepsilon$ in Wasserstein-1 distance, with a cost that is $O(d \varepsilon^{-2(d+1)/\beta-2} \log(1/\varepsilon)^{2d+3})$ per sample. This means that, if the probability associated with the SDE is somewhat regular, i.e. $\beta \geq 4d+2$, then the algorithm requires $O(\varepsilon^{-0.88} \log(1/\varepsilon)^{4.5d})$ in the preparatory phase, and $O(\varepsilon^{-1/2}\log(1/\varepsilon)^{2d+2})$ for each sample. Our results suggest that as the true solution gets smoother, we can circumvent the curse of dimensionality without requiring any sort of convexity.

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