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Workshop: Symmetry and Geometry in Neural Representations

AMES: A Differentiable Embedding Space Selection Framework for Latent Graph Inference

Yuan Lu · Haitz Sáez de Ocáriz Borde · Pietro Lió


In real-world scenarios, although data entities may possess inherent relationships, the specific graph illustrating their connections might not be directly accessible. Latent graph inference addresses this issue by enabling Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) to operate on point cloud data, dynamically learning the necessary graph structure. These graphs are often derived from a latent embedding space, which can be modeled using Euclidean, hyperbolic, spherical, or product spaces. However, currently, there is no principled differentiable method for determining the optimal embedding space. In this work, we introduce the Attentional Multi-Embedding Selection (AMES) framework, a differentiable method for selecting the best embedding space for latent graph inference through backpropagation, considering a downstream task. Our framework consistently achieves comparable or superior results compared to previous methods for latent graph inference across five benchmark datasets. Importantly, our approach eliminates the need for conducting multiple experiments to identify the optimal embedding space. Furthermore, we explore interpretability techniques that track the gradient contributions of different latent graphs, shedding light on how our attention-based, fully differentiable approach learns to choose the appropriate latent space. In line with previous works, our experiments emphasize the advantages of hyperbolic spaces in enhancing performance. More importantly, our interpretability framework provides a general approach for quantitatively comparing embedding spaces across different tasks based on their contributions, a dimension that has been overlooked in previous literature on latent graph inference.

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