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Workshop: NeurIPS 2023 Workshop: Machine Learning and the Physical Sciences

Removing Dust from CMB Observations with Diffusion Models

David Heurtel-Depeiges · Blakesly Burkhart · Ruben Ohana · Bruno R├ęgaldo-Saint Blancard

Abstract: In cosmology, the quest for primordial $B$-modes in cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations has highlighted the critical need for a refined model of the Galactic dust foreground. We investigate diffusion-based modeling of the dust foreground and their interest for component separation. Under the assumption of a Gaussian CMB with known cosmology (or covariance matrix), we show that diffusion models can be trained on examples of dust emission maps such that their sampling process directly coincides with posterior sampling in the context of component separation. We illustrate this on simulated mixtures of dust emission and CMB. We show that common summary statistics (power spectrum, Minkowski functionals) of the components are well recovered by this process. We also introduce a model conditioned by the CMB cosmology that outperforms models trained using a single cosmology on component separation. Such a model will be used in future work for diffusion-based cosmological inference.

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