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## Orals & Spotlights Track 22: Vision Applications

Each Oral includes Q&A
Spotlights have joint Q&As

### Time

2020-12-09T18:00:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T21:00:00-08:00

### Session chairs

Leonid Sigal, Alex Schwing

### Schedule

2020-12-09T18:00:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T18:15:00-08:00
##### 1 - Oral: Learning Implicit Functions for Topology-Varying Dense 3D Shape Correspondence
Feng Liu, Xiaoming Liu
The goal of this paper is to learn dense 3D shape correspondence for topology-varying objects in an unsupervised manner. Conventional implicit functions estimate the occupancy of a 3D point given a shape latent code. Instead, our novel implicit function produces a part embedding vector for each 3D point, which is assumed to be similar to its densely corresponded point in another 3D shape of the same object category. Furthermore, we implement dense correspondence through an inverse function mapping from the part embedding to a corresponded 3D point. Both functions are jointly learned with several effective loss functions to realize our assumption, together with the encoder generating the shape latent code. During inference, if a user selects an arbitrary point on the source shape, our algorithm can automatically generate a confidence score indicating whether there is a correspondence on the target shape, as well as the corresponding semantic point if there is. Such a mechanism inherently benefits man-made objects with different part constitutions. The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated through unsupervised 3D semantic correspondence and shape segmentation.
2020-12-09T18:15:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T18:30:00-08:00
##### 2 - Oral: LoopReg: Self-supervised Learning of Implicit Surface Correspondences, Pose and Shape for 3D Human Mesh Registration
Bharat Lal Bhatnagar, Cristian Sminchisescu, Christian Theobalt, Gerard Pons-Moll
We address the problem of fitting 3D human models to 3D scans of dressed humans. Classical methods optimize both the data-to-model correspondences and the human model parameters (pose and shape), but are reliable only when initialised close to the solution. Some methods initialize the optimization based on fully supervised correspondence predictors, which is not differentiable end-to-end, and can only process a single scan at a time. Our main contribution is LoopReg, an end-to-end learning framework to register a corpus of scans to a common 3D human model. The key idea is to create a self-supervised loop. A backward map, parameterized by a Neural Network, predicts the correspondence from every scan point to the surface of the human model. A forward map, parameterized by a human model, transforms the corresponding points back to the scan based on the model parameters (pose and shape), thus closing the loop. Formulating this closed loop is not straightforward because it is not trivial to force the output of the NN to be on the surface of the human model -- outside this surface the human model is not even defined. To this end, we propose two key innovations. First, we define the canonical surface implicitly as the zero level set of a distance field in R3, which in contrast to more common UV parameterizations does not require cutting the surface, does not have discontinuities, and does not induce distortion. Second, we diffuse the human model to the 3D domain. This allows to map the NN predictions forward, even when they slightly deviate from the zero level set. Results demonstrate that we can train LoopReg mainly self-supervised -- following a supervised warm-start, the model becomes increasingly more accurate as additional unlabelled raw scans are processed. Our code and pre-trained models can be downloaded for research.
2020-12-09T18:30:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T18:45:00-08:00
##### 3 - Oral: The Origins and Prevalence of Texture Bias in Convolutional Neural Networks
Katherine L. Hermann, Ting Chen, Simon Kornblith
Recent work has indicated that, unlike humans, ImageNet-trained CNNs tend to classify images by texture rather than by shape. How pervasive is this bias, and where does it come from? We find that, when trained on datasets of images with conflicting shape and texture, CNNs learn to classify by shape at least as easily as by texture. What factors, then, produce the texture bias in CNNs trained on ImageNet? Different unsupervised training objectives and different architectures have small but significant and largely independent effects on the level of texture bias. However, all objectives and architectures still lead to models that make texture-based classification decisions a majority of the time, even if shape information is decodable from their hidden representations. The effect of data augmentation is much larger. By taking less aggressive random crops at training time and applying simple, naturalistic augmentation (color distortion, noise, and blur), we train models that classify ambiguous images by shape a majority of the time, and outperform baselines on out-of-distribution test sets. Our results indicate that apparent differences in the way humans and ImageNet-trained CNNs process images may arise not primarily from differences in their internal workings, but from differences in the data that they see.
2020-12-09T18:45:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T19:00:00-08:00
##### Break
2020-12-09T19:00:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T19:10:00-08:00
##### 5 - Spotlight: Distribution Matching for Crowd Counting
Boyu Wang, Huidong Liu, Dimitris Samaras, Minh Hoai Nguyen
In crowd counting, each training image contains multiple people, where each person is annotated by a dot. Existing crowd counting methods need to use a Gaussian to smooth each annotated dot or to estimate the likelihood of every pixel given the annotated point. In this paper, we show that imposing Gaussians to annotations hurts generalization performance. Instead, we propose to use Distribution Matching for crowd COUNTing (DM-Count). In DM-Count, we use Optimal Transport (OT) to measure the similarity between the normalized predicted density map and the normalized ground truth density map. To stabilize OT computation, we include a Total Variation loss in our model. We show that the generalization error bound of DM-Count is tighter than that of the Gaussian smoothed methods. In terms of Mean Absolute Error, DM-Count outperforms the previous state-of-the-art methods by a large margin on two large-scale counting datasets, UCF-QNRF and NWPU, and achieves the state-of-the-art results on the ShanghaiTech and UCF-CC50 datasets. DM-Count reduced the error of the state-of-the-art published result by approximately 16%. Code is available at https://github.com/cvlab-stonybrook/DM-Count.
2020-12-09T19:10:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T19:20:00-08:00
##### 6 - Spotlight: Texture Interpolation for Probing Visual Perception
Jonathan Vacher, Aida Davila, Adam Kohn, Ruben Coen-Cagli
Texture synthesis models are important tools for understanding visual processing. In particular, statistical approaches based on neurally relevant features have been instrumental in understanding aspects of visual perception and of neural coding. New deep learning-based approaches further improve the quality of synthetic textures. Yet, it is still unclear why deep texture synthesis performs so well, and applications of this new framework to probe visual perception are scarce. Here, we show that distributions of deep convolutional neural network (CNN) activations of a texture are well described by elliptical distributions and therefore, following optimal transport theory, constraining their mean and covariance is sufficient to generate new texture samples. Then, we propose the natural geodesics (ie the shortest path between two points) arising with the optimal transport metric to interpolate between arbitrary textures. Compared to other CNN-based approaches, our interpolation method appears to match more closely the geometry of texture perception, and our mathematical framework is better suited to study its statistical nature. We apply our method by measuring the perceptual scale associated to the interpolation parameter in human observers, and the neural sensitivity of different areas of visual cortex in macaque monkeys.
2020-12-09T19:20:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T19:30:00-08:00
##### 7 - Spotlight: Consistent Structural Relation Learning for Zero-Shot Segmentation
Peike Li, Yunchao Wei, Yi Yang
Zero-shot semantic segmentation aims to recognize the semantics of pixels from unseen categories with zero training samples. Previous practice [1] proposed to train the classifiers for unseen categories using the visual features generated from semantic word embeddings. However, the generator is merely learned on the seen categories while no constraint is applied to the unseen categories, leading to poor generalization ability. In this work, we propose a Consistent Structural Relation Learning (CSRL) approach to constrain the generating of unseen visual features by exploiting the structural relations between seen and unseen categories. We observe that different categories are usually with similar relations in either semantic word embedding space or visual feature space. This observation motivates us to harness the similarity of category-level relations on the semantic word embedding space to learn a better visual feature generator. Concretely, by exploring the pair-wise and list-wise structures, we impose the relations of generated visual features to be consistent with their counterparts in the semantic word embedding space. In this way, the relations between seen and unseen categories will be transferred to implicitly constrain the generator to produce relation-consistent unseen visual features. We conduct extensive experiments on Pascal-VOC and Pascal-Context benchmarks. The proposed CSRL significantly outperforms existing state-of-the-art methods by a large margin, resulting in ~7-12% on Pascal-VOC and ~2-5% on Pascal-Context.
2020-12-09T19:30:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T19:40:00-08:00
##### 8 - Spotlight: CaSPR: Learning Canonical Spatiotemporal Point Cloud Representations
Davis Rempe, Tolga Birdal, Yongheng Zhao, Zan Gojcic, Srinath Sridhar, Leonidas Guibas
We propose CaSPR, a method to learn object-centric Canonical Spatiotemporal Point Cloud Representations of dynamically moving or evolving objects. Our goal is to enable information aggregation over time and the interrogation of object state at any spatiotemporal neighborhood in the past, observed or not. Different from previous work, CaSPR learns representations that support spacetime continuity, are robust to variable and irregularly spacetime-sampled point clouds, and generalize to unseen object instances. Our approach divides the problem into two subtasks. First, we explicitly encode time by mapping an input point cloud sequence to a spatiotemporally-canonicalized object space. We then leverage this canonicalization to learn a spatiotemporal latent representation using neural ordinary differential equations and a generative model of dynamically evolving shapes using continuous normalizing flows. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on several applications including shape reconstruction, camera pose estimation, continuous spatiotemporal sequence reconstruction, and correspondence estimation from irregularly or intermittently sampled observations.
2020-12-09T19:40:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T19:50:00-08:00
##### Q&A: Joint Q&A for Preceeding Spotlights
2020-12-09T19:50:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T20:00:00-08:00
##### 10 - Spotlight: ShapeFlow: Learnable Deformation Flows Among 3D Shapes
Max Jiang, Jingwei Huang, Andrea Tagliasacchi, Leonidas Guibas
We present ShapeFlow, a flow-based model for learning a deformation space for entire classes of 3D shapes with large intra-class variations. ShapeFlow allows learning a multi-template deformation space that is agnostic to shape topology, yet preserves fine geometric details. Different from a generative space where a latent vector is directly decoded into a shape, a deformation space decodes a vector into a continuous flow that can advect a source shape towards a target. Such a space naturally allows the disentanglement of geometric style (coming from the source) and structural pose (conforming to the target). We parametrize the deformation between geometries as a learned continuous flow field via a neural network and show that such deformations can be guaranteed to have desirable properties, such as bijectivity, freedom from self-intersections, or volume preservation. We illustrate the effectiveness of this learned deformation space for various downstream applications, including shape generation via deformation, geometric style transfer, unsupervised learning of a consistent parameterization for entire classes of shapes, and shape interpolation.
2020-12-09T20:00:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T20:10:00-08:00
##### 11 - Spotlight: Neural Mesh Flow: 3D Manifold Mesh Generation via Diffeomorphic Flows
Kunal Gupta, Manmohan Chandraker
Meshes are important representations of physical 3D entities in the virtual world. Applications like rendering, simulations and 3D printing require meshes to be manifold so that they can interact with the world like the real objects they represent. Prior methods generate meshes with great geometric accuracy but poor manifoldness. In this work, we propose NeuralMeshFlow (NMF) to generate two-manifold meshes for genus-0 shapes. Specifically, NMF is a shape auto-encoder consisting of several Neural Ordinary Differential Equation (NODE)(1) blocks that learn accurate mesh geometry by progressively deforming a spherical mesh. Training NMF is simpler compared to state-of-the-art methods since it does not require any explicit mesh-based regularization. Our experiments demonstrate that NMF facilitates several applications such as single-view mesh reconstruction, global shape parameterization, texture mapping, shape deformation and correspondence. Importantly, we demonstrate that manifold meshes generated using NMF are better-suited for physically-based rendering and simulation compared to prior works.
2020-12-09T20:10:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T20:20:00-08:00
##### 12 - Spotlight: Counterfactual Vision-and-Language Navigation: Unravelling the Unseen
Amin Parvaneh, Ehsan Abbasnejad, Damien Teney, Javen Qinfeng Shi, Anton van den Hengel
The task of vision-and-language navigation (VLN) requires an agent to follow text instructions to find its way through simulated household environments. A prominent challenge is to train an agent capable of generalising to new environments at test time, rather than one that simply memorises trajectories and visual details observed during training. We propose a new learning strategy that learns both from observations and generated counterfactual environments. We describe an effective algorithm to generate counterfactual observations on the fly for VLN, as linear combinations of existing environments. Simultaneously, we encourage the agent's actions to remain stable between original and counterfactual environments through our novel training objective-effectively removing the spurious features that otherwise bias the agent. Our experiments show that this technique provides significant improvements in generalisation on benchmarks for Room-to-Room navigation and Embodied Question Answering.
2020-12-09T20:20:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T20:30:00-08:00
##### 13 - Spotlight: RelationNet++: Bridging Visual Representations for Object Detection via Transformer Decoder
Cheng Chi, Fangyun Wei, Han Hu
Existing object detection frameworks are usually built on a single format of object/part representation, i.e., anchor/proposal rectangle boxes in RetinaNet and Faster R-CNN, center points in FCOS and RepPoints, and corner points in CornerNet. While these different representations usually drive the frameworks to perform well in different aspects, e.g., better classification or finer localization, it is in general difficult to combine these representations in a single framework to make good use of each strength, due to the heterogeneous or non-grid feature extraction by different representations. This paper presents an attention-based decoder module similar as that in Transformer~\cite{vaswani2017attention} to bridge other representations into a typical object detector built on a single representation format, in an end-to-end fashion. The other representations act as a set of \emph{key} instances to strengthen the main \emph{query} representation features in the vanilla detectors. Novel techniques are proposed towards efficient computation of the decoder module, including a \emph{key sampling} approach and a \emph{shared location embedding} approach. The proposed module is named \emph{bridging visual representations} (BVR). It can perform in-place and we demonstrate its broad effectiveness in bridging other representations into prevalent object detection frameworks, including RetinaNet, Faster R-CNN, FCOS and ATSS, where about $1.5\sim3.0$ AP improvements are achieved. In particular, we improve a state-of-the-art framework with a strong backbone by about $2.0$ AP, reaching $52.7$ AP on COCO test-dev. The resulting network is named RelationNet++. The code is available at \url{https://github.com/microsoft/RelationNet2}.
2020-12-09T20:30:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T20:40:00-08:00
##### Q&A: Joint Q&A for Preceeding Spotlights
2020-12-09T20:40:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T21:00:00-08:00