Counterfactual explanations have an invaluable potential to make model predictions more sensible to the users. To increase their adoption in practice, several criteria that counterfactual explanations should adhere to have been put forward in the literature. We propose counterfactual explanations using optimization with constraint learning (CE-OCL), a generic and flexible approach that addresses all these criteria and allows room for further extensions. Specifically, we discuss how we can leverage an optimization with constraint learning framework for the generation of counterfactual explanations, and how components of this framework readily map to the criteria. We also propose two novel modeling approaches to address data manifold closeness and diversity, which are two key criteria for practical counterfactual explanations. We test CE-OCL on several datasets and present our results in a case study. Compared against the current state-of-the-art methods, CE-OCL allows for more flexibility and has an overall superior performance in terms of several evaluation metrics proposed in related work.
Donato Maragno (University of Amsterdam)
Tabea E. Röber (University of Amsterdam)
Ilker Birbil (University of Amsterdam)
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