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Implicit Behavioral Cloning
Pete Florence · Corey Lynch · Andy Zeng · Oscar Ramirez · Ayzaan Wahid · Laura Downs · Adrian Wong · Igor Mordatch · Jonathan Tompson
Event URL: https://openreview.net/forum?id=D4jIUdBT5bp »

We find that across a wide range of robot policy learning scenarios, treating supervised policy learning with an implicit model generally performs better, on average, than commonly used explicit models. We present extensive experiments on this finding, and we provide both intuitive insight and theoretical arguments distinguishing the properties of implicit models compared to their explicit counterparts, particularly with respect to approximating complex, potentially discontinuous and multi-valued (set-valued) functions. On robotic policy learning tasks we show that implicit behavioral cloning policies with energy-based models (EBM) often outperform common explicit (Mean Square Error, or Mixture Density) counterparts, including on tasks with high-dimensional action spaces and visual image inputs. We find these policies provide competitive results or outperform state-of-the-art offline reinforcement learning methods on the challenging human-expert tasks from the D4RL benchmark suite, despite using no reward information. In the real world, robots with implicit policies can learn complex and remarkably subtle behaviors on contact-rich tasks from human demonstrations, including tasks with high combinatorial complexity and tasks requiring 1mm precision.

Author Information

Pete Florence (Robotics at Google)
Corey Lynch (Google Brain)
Andy Zeng (Google)
Oscar Ramirez (Google Brain)
Ayzaan Wahid (Google)
Laura Downs (Google)
Adrian Wong (Google)
Igor Mordatch (Research, Google)
Jonathan Tompson (Google Brain)

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