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Adaptive Denoising via GainTuning
Sreyas Mohan · Joshua L Vincent · Ramon Manzorro · Peter Crozier · Carlos Fernandez-Granda · Eero Simoncelli

Tue Dec 07 04:30 PM -- 06:00 PM (PST) @ None #None

Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for image denoising are typically trained on large datasets. These models achieve the current state of the art, but they do not generalize well to data that deviate from the training distribution. Recent work has shown that it is possible to train denoisers on a single noisy image. These models adapt to the features of the test image, but their performance is limited by the small amount of information used to train them. Here we propose "GainTuning'', a methodology by which CNN models pre-trained on large datasets can be adaptively and selectively adjusted for individual test images. To avoid overfitting, GainTuning optimizes a single multiplicative scaling parameter (the “Gain”) of each channel in the convolutional layers of the CNN. We show that GainTuning improves state-of-the-art CNNs on standard image-denoising benchmarks, boosting their denoising performance on nearly every image in a held-out test set. These adaptive improvements are even more substantial for test images differing systematically from the training data, either in noise level or image type. We illustrate the potential of adaptive GainTuning in a scientific application to transmission-electron-microscope images, using a CNN that is pre-trained on synthetic data. In contrast to the existing methodology, GainTuning is able to faithfully reconstruct the structure of catalytic nanoparticles from these data at extremely low signal-to-noise ratios.

Author Information

Sreyas Mohan (NYU)
Joshua L Vincent (Arizona State University)
Ramon Manzorro (Universidad de Zaragoza)
Peter Crozier (Arizona State University)
Carlos Fernandez-Granda (NYU)
Eero Simoncelli (FlatIron Institute / New York University)

Eero P. Simoncelli received the B.S. degree in Physics in 1984 from Harvard University, studied applied mathematics at Cambridge University for a year and a half, and then received the M.S. degree in 1988 and the Ph.D. degree in 1993, both in Electrical Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was an Assistant Professor in the Computer and Information Science department at the University of Pennsylvania from 1993 until 1996. He moved to New York University in September of 1996, where he is currently a Professor in Neural Science, Mathematics, and Psychology. In August 2000, he became an Associate Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, under their new program in Computational Biology. In Fall 2020, he resigned his HHMI appointment to become the scientific director of the Center for Computational Neuroscience at the Flatiron Institute, of the Simons Foundation. His research interests span a wide range of topics in the representation and analysis of visual images, in both machine and biological systems.

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