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Efficient and Accurate Estimation of Lipschitz Constants for Deep Neural Networks
Mahyar Fazlyab · Alexander Robey · Hamed Hassani · Manfred Morari · George J. Pappas

Tue Dec 10 10:45 AM -- 12:45 PM (PST) @ East Exhibition Hall B + C #139

Tight estimation of the Lipschitz constant for deep neural networks (DNNs) is useful in many applications ranging from robustness certification of classifiers to stability analysis of closed-loop systems with reinforcement learning controllers. Existing methods in the literature for estimating the Lipschitz constant suffer from either lack of accuracy or poor scalability. In this paper, we present a convex optimization framework to compute guaranteed upper bounds on the Lipschitz constant of DNNs both accurately and efficiently. Our main idea is to interpret activation functions as gradients of convex potential functions. Hence, they satisfy certain properties that can be described by quadratic constraints. This particular description allows us to pose the Lipschitz constant estimation problem as a semidefinite program (SDP). The resulting SDP can be adapted to increase either the estimation accuracy (by capturing the interaction between activation functions of different layers) or scalability (by decomposition and parallel implementation). We illustrate the utility of our approach with a variety of experiments on randomly generated networks and on classifiers trained on the MNIST and Iris datasets. In particular, we experimentally demonstrate that our Lipschitz bounds are the most accurate compared to those in the literature. We also study the impact of adversarial training methods on the Lipschitz bounds of the resulting classifiers and show that our bounds can be used to efficiently provide robustness guarantees.

Author Information

Mahyar Fazlyab (University of Pennsylvania)
Alexander Robey (University of Pennsylvania)
Hamed Hassani (UPenn)
Manfred Morari (University of Pennsylvania)
George J. Pappas (University of Pennsylvania)

George J. Pappas is the UPS Foundation Professor and Chair of the Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania. He also holds a secondary appointment in the Departments of Computer and Information Sciences, and Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics. He is member of the GRASP Lab and the PRECISE Center. He has previously served as the Deputy Dean for Research in the School of Engineering and Applied Science. His research focuses on control theory and in particular, hybrid systems, embedded systems, hierarchical and distributed control systems, with applications to unmanned aerial vehicles, distributed robotics, green buildings, and biomolecular networks. He is a Fellow of IEEE, and has received various awards such as the Antonio Ruberti Young Researcher Prize, the George S. Axelby Award, the O. Hugo Schuck Best Paper Award, the National Science Foundation PECASE, and the George H. Heilmeier Faculty Excellence Award.

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