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Likelihood Ratios for Out-of-Distribution Detection
Jie Ren · Peter Liu · Emily Fertig · Jasper Snoek · Ryan Poplin · Mark Depristo · Joshua V Dillon · Balaji Lakshminarayanan

Wed Dec 11 10:45 AM -- 12:45 PM (PST) @ East Exhibition Hall B + C #44

Discriminative neural networks offer little or no performance guarantees when deployed on data not generated by the same process as the training distribution. On such out-of-distribution (OOD) inputs, the prediction may not only be erroneous, but confidently so, limiting the safe deployment of classifiers in real-world applications. One such challenging application is bacteria identification based on genomic sequences, which holds the promise of early detection of diseases, but requires a model that can output low confidence predictions on OOD genomic sequences from new bacteria that were not present in the training data. We introduce a genomics dataset for OOD detection that allows other researchers to benchmark progress on this important problem. We investigate deep generative model based approaches for OOD detection and observe that the likelihood score is heavily affected by population level background statistics. We propose a likelihood ratio method for deep generative models which effectively corrects for these confounding background statistics. We benchmark the OOD detection performance of the proposed method against existing approaches on the genomics dataset and show that our method achieves state-of-the-art performance. Finally, we demonstrate the generality of the proposed method by showing that it significantly improves OOD detection when applied to deep generative models of images.

Author Information

Jie Ren (Google Brain)
Peter Liu (Google Brain)
Emily Fertig (Google Research)
Jasper Snoek (Google Brain)

Jasper Snoek is a research scientist at Google Brain. His research has touched a variety of topics at the intersection of Bayesian methods and deep learning. He completed his PhD in machine learning at the University of Toronto. He subsequently held postdoctoral fellowships at the University of Toronto, under Geoffrey Hinton and Ruslan Salakhutdinov, and at the Harvard Center for Research on Computation and Society, under Ryan Adams. Jasper co-founded a Bayesian optimization focused startup, Whetlab, which was acquired by Twitter. He has served as an Area Chair for NeurIPS, ICML, AISTATS and ICLR, and organized a variety of workshops at ICML and NeurIPS.

Ryan Poplin (Google)
Mark Depristo (Google)
Joshua V Dillon (Google)
Balaji Lakshminarayanan (Google DeepMind)

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