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As the ninth in its series, OPT 2016 builds on remarkable precedent established by the highly successful series of workshops: OPT 2008OPT 2015, which have been instrumental in bridging the OPT and ML communities closer together.
The previous OPT workshops enjoyed packed to overpacked attendance. This huge interest is no surprise: optimization is the 2nd largest topic at NIPS and is indeed foundational for the wider ML community.
Looking back over the past decade, a strong trend is apparent: The intersection of OPT and ML has grown monotonically to the point that now several cuttingedge advances in optimization arise from the ML community. The distinctive feature of optimization within ML is its departure from textbook approaches, in particular, by having a different set of goals driven by “bigdata,” where both models and practical implementation are crucial.
This intimate relation between OPT and ML is the core theme of our workshop. We wish to use OPT2016 as a platform to foster discussion, discovery, and dissemination of the stateoftheart in optimization as relevant to machine learning. And even beyond that, as a platform to identify new directions and challenges that will drive future research.
How OPT differs from other related workshops:
Compared to the other optimization focused workshops that we are aware of, the distinguishing features of OPT are: (a) it provides a unique bridge between the ML community and the wider optimization community; (b) it encourages theoretical work on an equal footing with practical efficiency; and (c) it caters to a wide body of NIPS attendees, experts and beginners alike (some OPT talks are always of a more “tutorial” nature).
Extended abstract
The OPT workshops have previously covered a variety of topics, such as frameworks for convex programs (D. Bertsekas), the intersection of ML and optimization, classification (S. Wright), stochastic gradient and its tradeoffs (L. Bottou, N. Srebro), structured sparsity (Vandenberghe), randomized methods for convex optimization (A. Nemirovski), complexity theory of convex optimization (Y. Nesterov), distributed optimization (S. Boyd), asynchronous stochastic gradient (B. Recht), algebraic techniques (P. Parrilo), nonconvex optimization (A. Lewis), sumsofsquares techniques (J. Lasserre), deep learning tricks (Y. Bengio), stochastic convex optimization (G. Lan), new views on interior point (E. Hazan), among others.
Several ideas propounded in OPT have by now become important research topics in ML and optimization  especially in the field of randomized algorithms, stochastic gradient and variance reduced stochastic gradient methods. An edited book "Optimization for Machine Learning" (S. Sra, S. Nowozin, and S. Wright; MIT Press, 2011) grew out of the first three OPT workshops, and contains highquality contributions from many of the speakers and attendees, and there have been sustained requests for the next edition of such a volume.
Much of the recent focus has been on largescale firstorder convex optimization algorithms for machine learning, both from a theoretical and methodological point of view. Covered topics included stochastic gradient algorithms, (accelerated) proximal algorithms, decomposition and coordinate descent algorithms, parallel and distributed optimization. Theoretical and practical advances in these methods remain a topic of core interest to the workshop. Recent years have also seen interesting advances in nonconvex optimization such as a growing body of results on alternating minimization, tensor factorization etc.
We also do not wish to ignore the not particularly large scale setting, where one does have time to wield substantial computational resources. In this setting, highaccuracy solutions and deep understanding of the lessons contained in the data are needed. Examples valuable to MLers may be exploration of genetic and environmental data to identify risk factors for disease; or problems dealing with setups where the amount of observed data is not huge, but the mathematical model is complex. Consequently, we encourage optimization methods on manifolds, ML problems with differential geometric antecedents, those using advanced algebraic techniques, and computational topology, for instance.
At this point, we would like to emphasize again that OPT2016 is one of the few optimization+ML workshops that lies at the intersection of theory and practice: both actual efficiency of algorithms in practice as well as their theoretical analysis are given equal value.
Fri 11:15 p.m.  11:30 p.m.

Opening Remarks

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Fri 11:30 p.m.  12:15 a.m.

Invited Talk: Online Optimization, Smoothing, and Worstcase Competitive Ratio (Maryam Fazel, University of Washington)
(Talk)
In Online Optimization, the data in an optimization problem is revealed over time and at each step a decision variable needs to be set without knowing the future data. This setup covers online resource allocation, from classical inventory problems to the Adwords problem popular in online advertising. In this talk, we prove bounds on the competitive ratio of two primaldual algorithms for a broad class of online convex optimization problems. We give a sufficient condition on the objective function that guarantees a constant worstcase competitive ratio for monotone functions. We show how smoothing the objective can improve the competitive ratio of these algorithms, and for separable functions, we show that the optimal smoothing can be derived by solving a convex optimization problem. This result allows us to directly optimize the competitive ratio bound over a class of smoothing functions, and hence design effective smoothing customized for a given cost function. 
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Sat 12:15 a.m.  12:30 a.m.

Spotlight: Markov Chain Lifting and Distributed ADMM
(Spotlight)
The time to converge to the steady state of a finite Markov chain can be greatly reduced by a lifting operation, which creates a new Markov chain on an expanded state space. For a class of quadratic objectives, we show an analogous behavior whereby a distributed ADMM algorithm can be seen as a lifting of Gradient Descent. This provides a deep insight for its faster convergence rate under optimal parameter tuning. We conjecture that this gain is always present, contrary to when lifting a Markov chain, where sometimes we only obtain a marginal speedup. 
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Sat 12:30 a.m.  1:30 a.m.

Poster Session 1
(Break)

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Sat 1:30 a.m.  2:00 a.m.

Coffee Break 1
(Poster Session)

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Sat 2:00 a.m.  2:45 a.m.

Invited Talk: Kernelbased Methods for Bandit Convex Optimization (Sébastien Bubeck, Microsoft Research)
(Talk)
A lot of progress has been made in recent years on extending classical multiarmed bandit strategies to very large set of actions. A particularly challenging setting is the one where the action set is continuous and the underlying cost function is convex, this is the socalled bandit convex optimization (BCO) problem. I will tell the story of BCO and explain some of the new ideas that we recently developed to solve it. I will focus on three new ideas from our recent work http://arxiv.org/abs/1607.03084 with Yin Tat Lee and Ronen Eldan: (i) a new connection between kernel methods and the popular multiplicative weights strategy; (ii) a new connection between kernel methods and one of Erdos’ favorite mathematical object, the Bernoulli convolution, and (iii) a new adaptive (and increasing!) learning rate for multiplicative weights. These ideas could be of broader interest in learning/algorithm’s design 
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Sat 2:45 a.m.  3:00 a.m.

Spotlight: FrankWolfe Algorithms for Saddle Point Problems
(Spotlight)
We extend the FrankWolfe (FW) optimization algorithm to solve constrained smooth convexconcave saddle point (SP) problems. Remarkably, the method only requires access to linear minimization oracles. Leveraging recent advances in FW optimization, we provide the first proof of convergence of a FWtype saddle point solver over polytopes, thereby partially answering a 30 yearold conjecture. We verify our convergence rates empirically and observe that by using a heuristic stepsize, we can get empirical convergence under more general conditions, paving the way for future theoretical work. 
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Sat 3:00 a.m.  5:00 a.m.

Lunch Break
(Break)

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Sat 5:00 a.m.  5:45 a.m.

Invited Talk: Semidefinite Programs with a Dash of Smoothness: Why and When the LowRank Approach Works (Nicolas Boumal, Princeton University)
(Talk)
Semidefinite programs (SDPs) can be solved in polynomial time by interior point methods, but scalability can be an issue. To address this shortcoming, over a decade ago, Burer and Monteiro proposed to solve SDPs with few equality constraints via lowrank, nonconvex surrogates. Remarkably, for some applications, local optimization methods seem to converge to global optima of these nonconvex surrogates reliably. In this presentation, we show that the BurerMonteiro formulation of SDPs in a certain class almost never has any spurious local optima, that is: the nonconvexity of the lowrank formulation is benign (even saddles are strict). This class of SDPs covers applications such as maxcut, community detection in the stochastic block model, robust PCA, phase retrieval and synchronization of rotations. The crucial assumption we make is that the lowrank problem lives on a manifold. Then, theory and algorithms from optimization on manifolds can be used. Optimization on manifolds is about minimizing a cost function over a smooth manifold, such as spheres, lowrank matrices, orthonormal frames, rotations, etc. We will present the basic framework as well as parts of the more general convergence theory, including recent complexity results. (Toolbox: http://www.manopt.org) Select parts are joint work with P.A. Absil, A. Bandeira, C. Cartis and V. Voroninski. 
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Sat 5:45 a.m.  6:00 a.m.

Spotlight: QuickeNing: A Generic QuasiNewton Algorithm for Faster GradientBased Optimization
(Spotlight)
We propose a technique to accelerate gradientbased optimization algorithms by giving them the ability to exploit LBFGS heuristics. Our scheme is (i) generic and can be applied to a large class of firstorder algorithms; (ii) it is compatible with composite objectives, meaning that it may provide exactly sparse solutions when a sparsityinducing regularization is involved; (iii) it admits a linear convergence rate for stronglyconvex problems; (iv) it is easy to use and it does not require any line search. Our work is inspired in part by the Catalyst metaalgorithm, which accelerates gradientbased techniques in the sense of Nesterov; here, we adopt a different strategy based on LBFGS rules to learn and exploit the local curvature. In most practical cases, we observe significant improvements over Catalyst for solving largescale highdimensional machine learning problems. 
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Sat 6:00 a.m.  6:30 a.m.

Coffee Break 2
(Poster Session)

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Sat 6:30 a.m.  7:30 a.m.

Poster Session 2
(Poster Session)

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Sat 7:30 a.m.  8:15 a.m.

Invited Talk: Oracle Complexity of SecondOrder Methods for FiniteSum Problems (Ohad Shamir, Weizmann Institute of Science)
(Talk)
Finitesum optimization problems are ubiquitous in machine learning, and are commonly solved using firstorder methods which rely on gradient computations. Recently, there has been growing interest in secondorder methods, which rely on both gradients and Hessians. In principle, secondorder methods can require much fewer iterations than firstorder methods, and hold the promise for more efficient algorithms. Although computing and manipulating Hessians is prohibitive for highdimensional problems in general, the Hessians of individual functions in finitesum problems can often be efficiently computed, e.g. because they possess a lowrank structure. Can secondorder information indeed be used to solve such problems more efficiently? In this talk, I'll provide evidence that the answer  perhaps surprisingly  is negative, at least in terms of worstcase guarantees. However, I'll also discuss what additional assumptions and algorithmic approaches might potentially circumvent this negative result. Joint work with Yossi Arjevani. 
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Sat 8:15 a.m.  8:30 a.m.

Spotlight: Reliably Learning the ReLU in Polynomial Time
(Spotlight)
We give the first dimensionefficient algorithms for learning Rectified Linear Units (ReLUs), which are functions of the form max(0, w.x) with w a unit vector (2norm equal to 1). Our algorithm works in the challenging Reliable Agnostic learning model of Kalai, Kanade, and Mansour where the learner is given access to a distribution D on labeled examples but the labeling may be arbitrary. We construct a hypothesis that simultaneously minimizes the falsepositive rate and the l_p loss (for p=1 or p >=2) of inputs given positive labels by D. It runs in polynomialtime (in n) with respect to {\em any} distribution on S^{n1} (the unit sphere in n dimensions) and for any error parameter \epsilon = \Omega(1/ \log n). These results are in contrast to known efficient algorithms for reliably learning linear threshold functions, where epsilon must be Omega(1) and strong assumptions are required on the marginal distribution. We can compose our results to obtain the first set of efficient algorithms for learning constantdepth networks of ReLUs. Our techniques combine kernel methods and polynomial approximations with a 
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Author Information
Suvrit Sra (MIT)
Suvrit Sra is a faculty member within the EECS department at MIT, where he is also a core faculty member of IDSS, LIDS, MITML Group, as well as the statistics and data science center. His research spans topics in optimization, matrix theory, differential geometry, and probability theory, which he connects with machine learning  a key focus of his research is on the theme "Optimization for Machine Learning” (http://optml.org)
Francis Bach (INRIA  Ecole Normale Superieure)
Sashank J. Reddi (Carnegie Mellon University)
Niao He (UIUC)
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Nicolas Le Roux · Mark Schmidt · Francis Bach 
2012 Oral: A Stochastic Gradient Method with an Exponential Convergence
Rate for Finite Training Sets »
Nicolas Le Roux · Mark Schmidt · Francis Bach 
2012 Poster: Scalable nonconvex inexact proximal splitting »
Suvrit Sra 
2011 Workshop: Optimization for Machine Learning »
Suvrit Sra · Stephen Wright · Sebastian Nowozin 
2011 Workshop: Sparse Representation and Lowrank Approximation »
Ameet S Talwalkar · Lester W Mackey · Mehryar Mohri · Michael W Mahoney · Francis Bach · Mike E davies · Remi Gribonval · Guillaume R Obozinski 
2011 Poster: Convergence Rates of Inexact ProximalGradient Methods for Convex Optimization »
Mark Schmidt · Nicolas Le Roux · Francis Bach 
2011 Oral: Convergence Rates of Inexact ProximalGradient Methods for Convex Optimization »
Mark Schmidt · Nicolas Le Roux · Francis Bach 
2011 Poster: NonAsymptotic Analysis of Stochastic Approximation Algorithms for Machine Learning »
Francis Bach · Eric Moulines 
2011 Poster: Trace Lasso: a trace norm regularization for correlated designs »
Edouard Grave · Guillaume R Obozinski · Francis Bach 
2011 Spotlight: NonAsymptotic Analysis of Stochastic Approximation Algorithms for Machine Learning »
Francis Bach · Eric Moulines 
2011 Poster: Shaping Level Sets with Submodular Functions »
Francis Bach 
2010 Workshop: New Directions in Multiple Kernel Learning »
Marius Kloft · Ulrich Rueckert · Cheng Soon Ong · Alain Rakotomamonjy · Soeren Sonnenburg · Francis Bach 
2010 Workshop: Numerical Mathematics Challenges in Machine Learning »
Matthias Seeger · Suvrit Sra 
2010 Workshop: Optimization for Machine Learning »
Suvrit Sra · Sebastian Nowozin · Stephen Wright 
2010 Spotlight: Online Learning for Latent Dirichlet Allocation »
Matthew D. Hoffman · David Blei · Francis Bach 
2010 Poster: Efficient Optimization for Discriminative Latent Class Models »
Armand Joulin · Francis Bach · Jean A Ponce 
2010 Poster: Online Learning for Latent Dirichlet Allocation »
Matthew D. Hoffman · David Blei · Francis Bach 
2010 Oral: Structured sparsityinducing norms through submodular functions »
Francis Bach 
2010 Poster: Structured sparsityinducing norms through submodular functions »
Francis Bach 
2010 Poster: Network Flow Algorithms for Structured Sparsity »
Julien Mairal · Rodolphe Jenatton · Guillaume R Obozinski · Francis Bach 
2009 Workshop: Optimization for Machine Learning »
Sebastian Nowozin · Suvrit Sra · S.V.N Vishwanthan · Stephen Wright 
2009 Workshop: Understanding Multiple Kernel Learning Methods »
Brian McFee · Gert Lanckriet · Francis Bach · Nati Srebro 
2009 Poster: Datadriven calibration of linear estimators with minimal penalties »
Sylvain Arlot · Francis Bach 
2009 Poster: Asymptotically Optimal Regularization in Smooth Parametric Models »
Percy Liang · Francis Bach · Guillaume Bouchard · Michael Jordan 
2009 Tutorial: Sparse Methods for Machine Learning: Theory and Algorithms »
Francis Bach 
2008 Workshop: Optimization for Machine Learning »
Suvrit Sra · Sebastian Nowozin · Vishwanathan S V N 
2008 Poster: Clustered MultiTask Learning: A Convex Formulation »
Laurent Jacob · Francis Bach · JeanPhilippe Vert 
2008 Poster: Sparse probabilistic projections »
Cedric Archambeau · Francis Bach 
2008 Spotlight: Sparse probabilistic projections »
Cedric Archambeau · Francis Bach 
2008 Spotlight: Clustered MultiTask Learning: A Convex Formulation »
Laurent Jacob · Francis Bach · JeanPhilippe Vert 
2008 Poster: Exploring Large Feature Spaces with Hierarchical Multiple Kernel Learning »
Francis Bach 
2008 Poster: Kernel Changepoint Analysis »
Zaid Harchaoui · Francis Bach · Eric Moulines 
2008 Poster: SDL: Supervised Dictionary Learning »
Julien Mairal · Francis Bach · Jean A Ponce · Guillermo Sapiro · Andrew Zisserman 
2007 Poster: Testing for Homogeneity with Kernel Fisher Discriminant Analysis »
Zaid Harchaoui · Francis Bach · Moulines Eric 
2007 Poster: DIFFRAC: a discriminative and flexible framework for clustering »
Francis Bach · Zaid Harchaoui 
2007 Session: Session 2: Probabilistic Optimization »
Francis Bach 
2006 Poster: Active learning for misspecified generalized linear models »
Francis Bach